scty-10k_20151231.htm

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark one)

x    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

Or

¨    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission file number: 001-35758

 

SolarCity Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

02-0781046

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

3055 Clearview Way

San Mateo, California 94402

(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 638-1028

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”).    Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No   ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

 

x

  

Accelerated filer

 

¨

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

  

Smaller reporting company

 

¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No   x

As of June 30, 2015 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), the aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant based on the closing price of $53.55 for shares of the registrant’s common stock as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market, was approximately $3,281.8 million.

On January 31, 2016, 97,913,107 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.0001 par value, were outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the information called for by Part III of this Form 10-K is hereby incorporated by reference from the definitive Proxy Statement for our annual meeting of stockholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2015.

 

 

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Page

 

PART I 

 

2

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

2

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

12

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

36

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

36

Item 3

 

Legal Proceedings

 

37

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

38

 

PART II 

 

39

 

Item 5.

 

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

 

39

Item 6.

 

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

 

41

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

42

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

70

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

71

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

72

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

73

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations

 

75

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Equity

 

76

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

77

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

79

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

132

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

132

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

134

 

PART III 

 

135

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance

 

135

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

135

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

135

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

135

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

135

 

PART IV 

 

136

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

136

 

 

Signatures 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i


 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The discussion in this annual report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are any statements that look to future events and consist of, among other things, our business strategies; anticipated future financial results; expected trends in certain financial and operating metrics; our belief that the aggregate megawatt production capacity of our systems is an indicator of the growth rate of our solar energy systems business; the calculation of estimated nominal contracted payments remaining, and certain other metrics based on forward-looking projections; projections on growth in the markets that we operate and our growth rates; pricing trends, including our ability to achieve economies of scale in both installation and capital costs; our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses, operations and personnel; our ability to achieve manufacturing economies of scale and associated cost reductions; our goals reducing our cost per watt to $2.30 by 2017 and $2.00 by 2019; our expectations regarding the Riverbend Agreement, the development and construction of the Manufacturing Facility, anticipated timing and expense related to acquisition of manufacturing equipment, and related assumptions regarding expected capital and operating expenses and the performance of our manufacturing operations; our belief that adequate surplus capacity of non-tariff solar panels is available to suit our future needs and the costs of solar energy system components; our beliefs regarding future regulations and policies affecting our business, such as net energy metering policies; projections relating to our use of and reliance on U.S. Treasury grants and federal, state and local incentives and tax attributes; our regulatory status as a non-utility; our ability to continue to meet the regulatory requirements of a public company; domestic and international expansion, including throughout Mexico, and hiring plans; compliance with federal and international laws and regulations; product development efforts and customer preferences; the fair market value of our solar energy systems, including amounts potentially payable to our fund investors as a result of decreased fair market value determinations by the U.S. Treasury Department; the life and durability of our solar systems and equipment, anticipated contract renewals and warranty obligations; the success of our sales and marketing efforts; our internal control environment; pending litigation; the payment of future dividends; and our belief as to the sufficiency of our existing cash and cash equivalents, funds available under our secured credit facilities and funds available under existing financing funds to meet our working capital and operating resource requirements for the next 12 months.

The forward-looking statements are contained principally in, but not limited to, the sections titled “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” In addition, forward-looking statements also consist of statements involving trend analyses and statements including such words as “will,” “may,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “would,” “might,” “potentially,” “estimate,” “continue,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” and similar expressions or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this annual report on Form 10-K and are subject to business and economic risks. As such, our actual results could differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including those set forth below in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and in our other reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not occur, and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or publically release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.

 

 

 

 

1


 

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

SolarCity’s founding vision is to accelerate mass adoption of sustainable energy. We believe solar power can and will become the world’s predominant source of energy, and that we can speed widespread adoption of solar power by offering products that save our customers money. We sell renewable energy to our customers at prices below utility rates, and are focused on reducing the cost of solar energy. Since our founding in 2006, we have installed solar energy systems for over 230,000 customers. Our long-term agreements with our customers generate recurring payments and create a portfolio of high-quality receivables that we leverage to further reduce the cost of making the switch to solar energy.

We currently install more solar energy systems than any other company in the United States with over 110,000 new installations in 2015. During the first nine months of 2015, we installed approximately one-third of all residential solar energy capacity installed in the United States and approximately one-eighth of all commercial and industrial solar energy capacity in the United States, according to GTM Research, and we are the largest employer in the United States solar industry. Despite our growth, as of the end of 2015, the electricity produced by our solar installations represented less than 0.1% of total U.S. electricity generation. With over 37 million single-family homes in our primary service territories, and many millions more across the rest of the country and the world, our opportunity to expand is enormous and continues to grow.

Achieving our founding vision requires changing the way that electricity is produced and delivered. As part of this mission, we have set operational goals of reducing our cost per watt to $2.30 by 2017 and $2.00 by 2019. Accomplishing these goals requires efficient growth in our business through continued product and financing innovations, and a strong dedication to customer service.

2015 Operational Highlights:

Our 2015 operational highlights include the follow:

 

·

Megawatts Installed – We installed 870 megawatts in the year ended December 31, 2015, an increase of 73.0% from the year ended December 31, 2014, and installed more solar energy systems than any other company in the United States in 2015.

 

·

Healthy Balance Sheet – We had cash and cash equivalents of $382.5 million as of December 31, 2015.

 

·

Solar Installations – We have installed 232,940 solar energy systems for our customers as December 31, 2015, an increase of 87.8% from fiscal 2014.

 

·

Total Employees – We grew to 15,273 total employees as of December 31, 2015, an increase of 68.7% from fiscal 2014.

 

·

International Expansion – In 2015, we expanded our solar installation business internationally into Mexico, with our acquisition of Ilioss in August 2015.

 

·

Convertible Note Offerings – We issued $113 million in aggregate principal of zero coupon convertible senior notes due 2020 in a private placement transaction.

 

·

Advancement in Rooftop Solar Panel Efficiency – In the fourth quarter of 2015, we announced that we had built what we believe to be the world’s most efficient rooftop solar panel, with a module efficiency exceeding 22%, and began domestic manufacturing of our high-efficiency rooftop solar panels.

 

·

Worldwide Microgrid Service – We launched GridLogic, a microgrid service that combines distributed energy resources (solar, batteries and controllable load) and can provide dependable, clean power to communities anywhere in the world vulnerable to power outages and high energy costs.

 

·

Service Offering to SMBs – We partnered with Renew Financial to begin offering our energy contracts to small and medium-sized businesses, or SMBs, by allowing them to make payments through their property tax bills.

 

2


 

We believe the significant demand for our energy solutions results from the following value propositions:

 

·

We lower energy costs. We make it possible for our customers to switch to clean solar energy for less than they currently pay for electricity from utilities, with little to no up-front cost. Customers also are able to secure their energy costs for the long term and potentially insulate themselves from rising energy costs.

 

·

We build long-term customer relationships. We are focused on creating lifetime customer relationships. We offer solar energy on long-term customer agreements, typically with 20-year contract terms for SolarCity owned systems (with the potential to renew contracts at the end of the original term) and 30-year contract terms for customer-owned systems financed by SolarCity. These agreements reflect a position of trust in our customers’ homes and businesses and generate significant referrals to new customers. Approximately one-out-of-five of our new residential sales in 2015 have come from referrals from other customers.

 

·

We make it easy. We perform the entire process – designing, permitting, financing, installing, maintenance and monitoring – and enable our customers to make the simple switch to renewable energy.

 

·

We focus on quality. Our top priority is to provide value and quality service to our customers. We have assembled a highly skilled team of in-house professionals dedicated to the highest engineering standards, overall quality and customer service during the installation process and throughout the entire life of the solar energy system.

Our Customers

Our customers purchase electricity and energy-related products and services from us that lower their overall energy costs. Our customer base is comprised of the following key sectors:

 

·

Residential. The vast majority of our customers are individual homeowners who want to switch to cleaner, more affordable energy. Residential customers also include homeowners within communities developed by home builders we have partnered with.

 

·

Commercial. Our commercial customers represent diverse business sectors, including technology, retail, manufacturing, agriculture and nonprofits, including large customers such as Walmart, eBay, HP, Walgreens, Intel, and Safeway, Mexican businesses such as Tiendas Soriana, and thousands of other businesses across the United States, including SMBs.

 

·

Government. We have installed solar energy systems for various federal, state and municipal government entities, including the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marines and Navy, the City of Lancaster, the City of San Jose, the City of Sacramento, the Department of Homeland Security and a number of schools and universities.

We generally group our commercial and governmental customers together for our internal customer management purposes.

We have completed installations in 27 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canada and Mexico, and maintain operations centers across the United States. More than 70% of our current customers are in our top five states – California, Arizona, Massachusetts, Maryland and New York. We intend to expand our footprint domestically and internationally wherever distributed solar energy generation is a viable economic alternative to utility generation.

Our Approach

Through our uniquely vertically-integrated strategy, we enable our customers to lower their energy costs in a simple and efficient process. We have disrupted the industry status quo by providing renewable energy directly to customers for less than they are currently paying for utility-generated energy. Unlike utilities, we provide energy with a predictable cost structure that does not rely on limited fossil fuels and is insulated from rising retail electricity prices. We also provide assurances to our customers as to the amount of electricity produced by our solar energy systems. Our strategy is to create a best-in-class vertically-integrated operation focused on leveraging differentiated technology and our significant scale to lead the way in driving down the cost of solar energy to an affordable level for more and more people across the country and, eventually, the world. By focusing on technology solutions, we are working to build a cleaner, more affordable, more resilient energy distribution grid. By putting cleaner and more affordable energy in the hands of the consumer, we are building a broad portfolio of customers with relationships we aim to retain for life and ultimately a network of distributed solar energy systems that could transform the way energy is delivered globally.

 

3


 

The key elements of our integrated customer-focused approach are illustrated below:

SolarCity’s Integrated Approach

 

·

Sales. We sell our products and services through a national sales organization that includes specialized internal call centers, a door-to-door sales team, a channel partner network and a robust customer referral program. We have structured our sales organization to efficiently engage prospective customers from initial interest to customized proposals to signed contracts. We intend to continue growing our sales teams as we focus on cost-efficient growth to educate consumers about the benefits of our solar products in order to lower customer acquisition costs and further expand our operations.

 

·

Financing. Financing makes it possible to install our solar energy systems for little or no upfront cost. Through a streamlined process, we provide multiple pricing options to our customers to help make renewable, distributed energy accessible and affordable, either on a fixed monthly fee basis or a fee based on the amount of energy produced. Our continued focus on innovative solar financing helps reduce our cost of capital and offers a range of payment alternatives to our customers.

 

·

Engineering. Our in-house engineering team designs a customized solar energy system for each of our customers. We have developed software that simplifies and expedites the design process and optimizes the design to maximize the energy production of each system. Our engineers complete a structural analysis of each building and produce a full set of structural design and electrical blueprints that contain the specifications for all system components.

 

·

Manufacturing: In the fourth quarter of 2015, we announced that we had built what we believe to be the world’s most efficient rooftop solar panel, with a module efficiency exceeding 22%, and began domestic manufacturing of our high-efficiency rooftop solar panels. We have also continued making innovations in solar mounting hardware, focusing on further reducing our installation time and costs.

 

·

Installation. Once we complete the design of our solar energy systems, we obtain all necessary building permits. Our customer care representatives coordinate the SolarCity team and continually update our customers every step through the project. We are a licensed contractor or use licensed subcontractors in every community we service, and we are responsible for every customer installation. For substantially all of our residential projects, we are the general contractor, construction manager and installer. For our commercial projects, we are in most cases the general contractor and construction manager and are increasing the integration of our commercial installation operations. Once we complete installation of a system, we schedule inspections with the local building department and arrange for interconnection to the power grid with the utility. By handling these logistics, we make the installation process simple for our customers.

 

·

Monitoring and Maintenance. Our proprietary monitoring software provides our customers with a real-time view of their energy generation and consumption. Our monitoring systems collect, monitor and display critical performance data from our solar energy systems, including production levels, local weather, electricity usage and environmental impacts. These monitoring systems allow us to confirm the continuing proper operation of our solar energy systems, identify maintenance issues and provide our customers with a better understanding of their energy usage, allowing them the opportunity to modify their usage accordingly. Our proprietary MySolarCity application offers an easy-to-read graphical display available on smartphones and any device with a Web browser, along with our proprietary EnergyExplorer that provides homeowners a self-guided tour of their energy usage, and MySystem which allows them to track their installation throughout the process.

 

·

Energy Storage. We also offer energy storage services through our collaboration with Tesla Motors. In March 2015, we announced our proprietary GridLogic microgrid service that combines distributed energy resources to enable a cleaner, more resilient and more affordable way of providing power. In April 2015, we announced a turnkey residential battery backup service that incorporates Tesla’s Powerwall.  We continue to see strong customer adoption of our DemandLogic smart energy storage system for commercial customers that allow businesses to reduce energy costs by using stored electricity generated by our solar energy systems to reduce peak demand from utilities.

 

4


 

Competitive Strengths

We believe the following strengths enable us to deliver our solar energy solutions to a diversified customer base that includes residential homeowners, large and small businesses, and government entities:

 

·

Lower cost energy. We provide energy to our customers at prices below utility rates. Our solar energy systems rely solely on the energy produced by the sun, allowing our customers to generate their own energy and reduce the amount they purchase from utilities. We help put solar energy generation within the reach of our customers by providing a variety of pricing options that minimize or eliminate upfront costs. Our customers typically achieve a lower overall electricity bill immediately upon installation. As retail utility rates rise, our customers’ savings can generally increase.

 

·

Easy to switch. We have developed an integrated approach that allows our customers to access distributed renewable energy generation simply and efficiently. By providing the sales, financing, engineering, installation, monitoring and maintenance ourselves, we are able to control and oversee the entire process while providing a superior experience to our customers.

 

·

Long-term customer relationships. Our business model is centered on developing long-term relationships with our customers. Under our standard customer lease and power purchase agreements, our solar energy customers typically purchase energy from us for 20 years, and because our solar energy systems have an estimated life in excess of 30 years, we intend to offer our customers renewal contracts at the end of the original contract term. Under our MyPower product, we sell solar energy systems to our customers financed by a loan of up to 30 years. Under all our agreements, we maintain an ongoing relationship with our solar energy customers through our receipt of payments and our real-time monitoring systems.

 

·

Significant size and scale. Our status as the leading installer of solar energy systems in the United States enables us to achieve economies of scale in both installation and capital costs. We believe that our scale provides our customers with confidence in our continuing ability to service their system and guarantee its performance over the duration of their long-term contract.

 

·

Innovative technology. We continually innovate and develop new technologies to facilitate our growth and to enhance the delivery of our products and services. For example, we have developed proprietary software to reduce system design and installation, and we have acquired leading solar technology companies such as Zep Solar and Silevo.

 

·

Brand recognition. Our lifetime approach to customer relationships, our ability to provide high-quality services, and our dedication to best-in-class engineering efforts have helped us establish a recognized and trusted national brand. As one of the first companies to enter the solar leasing business and with the largest number of installations in the country by a wide margin, we have built a formidable track record of excellent workmanship and high customer satisfaction that is difficult for smaller, newer competitors to match. In 2015, approximately one-out-of-five of our new residential sales contracts originated from customer referrals. We believe our well-known brand and strong reputation are meaningful factors for customers as they consider their energy alternatives.

 

·

Strong leadership team. We are led by a strong management team with demonstrated execution capabilities and an ability to adapt to rapidly changing market environments. Our senior leadership team, consisting of our co-founders, Lyndon R. Rive and Peter J. Rive, and our chairman, Elon Musk, are widely recognized entrepreneurs and thought leaders with track records of building successful businesses. Additionally, to support our integrated business model, we have developed in-house expertise through strong senior leadership on our engineering, structured finance, legal and government affairs teams.

Our Financial Strategy and Product Offerings

SolarCity is an industry leader in offering innovative financing alternatives for our customers. In 2008, we launched the SolarLease, offering customers a fixed monthly fee at rates that typically translated into lower monthly utility bills with an electricity production guarantee from a SolarCity-owned system. This was followed in 2009 by the launch of the SolarPPA, a power purchase agreement charging customers a fee per kilowatt hour, or kWh, based on the amount of electricity produced by our solar energy systems at rates typically lower than their local utility rate. In 2014, we launched MyPower, a SolarCity-financed loan that offers the benefits of customer-owned systems. MyPower allows customers to take direct advantage of federal tax credits to reduce their electricity prices, with monthly payments applied to the balance of the customer’s outstanding loan. These money-saving product offerings have fueled our growth to date.

 

5


 

Our long-term customer agreements create high-quality recurring payments, investment tax credits, accelerated tax depreciation and other incentives. We perceive our recurring customer payments as high-quality assets because electricity is a necessity, and our customers typically include individuals with high credit scores, commercial businesses and government agencies. In addition, we have experienced extremely low historic default rates on payments from our customers, with average net loss rates in 2015 of approximately 0.5%. Our financial strategy is to monetize these assets at the lowest cost of capital. We share the economic benefit of this lower cost of capital with our customers by lowering the price they pay for energy.

Historically, we have monetized the assets created by our customer agreements through financing funds we have formed with fund investors. In general, we contribute and sell assets to the financing funds in exchange for upfront cash and a residual interest. The allocation of the economic benefits, as well as the timing of receipt of such economic benefits, among us and the fund investors varies depending on the structure of the financing fund. We use a portion of the cash received from the financing fund to cover our variable and fixed costs associated with installing the related solar energy systems. We invest the excess cash in the growth of our business. At the end of 2015, we had over 40 financing funds with 20 different investors, comprised mostly of large financial institutions and large blue chip corporations.

In 2013, we completed what we believe to be the first securitization of distributed solar energy assets, and we have followed our initial offering with four additional securitization offerings. In 2014, we launched our Solar Bonds program, offering investors the opportunity to purchase SolarCity debt securities directly from us through a web-based platform. In the future, in addition to or in lieu of monetizing our solar energy assets through financing funds, we may use debt, equity, securitization, joint-ventures and other financing strategies to fund our operations.

We are organized and operate in a single segment. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K.

Our Innovative Products, Services and Technology

We use a portfolio of complementary products, services and technology innovations to reduce the cost and burdens of switching to solar energy, manage our growth and save our customers money.

 

·

Solar Energy Systems. The major components of our solar energy systems include solar panels that convert sunlight into electrical current, inverters that convert the electrical output from the panels to a usable current compatible with the electric grid, racking that attaches the solar panels to the roof or ground and electrical hardware that connects the solar energy system to the electric grid and our monitoring device. We purchase the majority of system components from vendors, maintaining multiple sources for each major component to ensure competitive pricing and an adequate supply of materials. We also design and manufacture other system components.

In the fourth quarter of 2015, we announced that we had built what we believe to be the world’s most efficient rooftop solar panel, with a module efficiency exceeding 22%, and began domestic manufacturing of our high-efficiency rooftop solar panels.  The SolarCity panel generates more power per square foot and harvests more energy over a year than any other rooftop panel in production.

 

·

Customer Agreements

 

·

SolarLease and SolarPPA Customer Agreements. Our innovative SolarLease and SolarPPA customer agreements have fueled our growth by allowing our customers to pay little or no upfront costs to switch to distributed solar energy. Customers can also increase their lifetime energy savings by pre-paying a portion of their future payments. Over the terms of both agreements, we own and operate the system and guarantee its performance. Our current standard SolarLeases and SolarPPAs have 20-year terms, and we typically offer the opportunity to renew our agreements for up to an additional 10 years. Prior to 2010, our standard lease term was 15 years. In a limited number of utility districts, we continue to offer lease terms of less than 20 years to offer the maximum savings under applicable incentive programs. In addition, a limited number of our commercial customers have entered into power purchase agreements with terms of between 10 and 20 years.

 

·

MyPower Loan Agreement. Our first-of-its-kind MyPower product combines the benefits of our SolarPPA with financing directly through SolarCity. Under MyPower, we operate and maintain the system through the 30-year term of the agreement. MyPower allows us to broaden our customer base to customers preferring system ownership and expand our markets to jurisdictions less favorable to third-party owned systems.

 

6


 

 

·

Grid Control / Energy Storage Systems. We are also developing proprietary battery management systems built on our solar energy monitoring communications backbone. These battery management systems are designed to enable remote, fully bidirectional control of distributed energy storage that can potentially provide significant benefits to our customers, utilities and grid operators. The benefits to our customers of energy storage coupled with a solar energy system may include back-up power, time-of-use energy arbitrage, rate arbitrage, peak demand shaving and demand response. The benefits to utilities and grid operators may include more stable grid management and improved up-time. We believe that advances in battery storage technology, steep reductions in pricing and burgeoning policy changes that support energy storage hold significant promise for enabling deployments of grid-connected energy storage systems. 

 

·

Zep Solar Mounting Systems. Our Zep Solar division designs complementary mounting and grounding hardware. Zep Solar’s engineering team is dedicated to state-of-the-art innovations to reduce the cost of installing solar energy systems and increase their productivity. Our ZS Peak flat roof solar mounting solution has increased our ability to serve commercial customers by reducing installation times and increasing the electricity generation and panel capacity of our system layouts.

 

·

Proprietary Software

 

·

SolarBid Sales Management Platform. SolarBid is our proprietary sales management platform that incorporates a database of rate information by utility, sun exposure, roof orientation and a variety of other factors to enable a detailed analysis and customized graphical presentation of each customer’s savings. SolarBid simplifies the sales process and automates pricing, system configuration and proposal generation. It also automatically prepares the customer agreements, incentive forms and utility paperwork required to complete a project. SolarBid is designed for maximum flexibility, allowing us to quickly add new products, services and geographies.

 

·

SolarWorks Customer Management Software. SolarWorks is our proprietary software platform used to track and manage every project. SolarWorks’ embedded database and custom architecture offers reduced costs, improved quality and improved customer experience by supporting scheduling, budgeting and other project management functions as well as customer communications, inventory management and detailed project data.

 

·

Energy Designer. Energy Designer is a proprietary software application used by our field engineering auditors to rapidly collect all pertinent site-specific design details on a tablet computer. This information then syncs with our design automation software, reducing design time and accelerating the permitting process.

 

·

PowerGuide Proactive Monitoring Solutions. SolarGuard and PowerGuide provide our customers a real-time view of their home’s or business’s energy generation and consumption. Through easy-to-read graphical displays available on smartphones and any device with a web browser, our monitoring systems collect, monitor and display critical performance data from our solar energy systems, including production levels, local weather, electricity usage and environmental impacts such as carbon offset and pollution reduction. Our customer service team reviews system performance data using this proprietary monitoring software to confirm continued efficient operation.

Sales and Marketing

We market and sell our products and services through a national sales organization that includes a direct outside sales force, a door-to-door sales force, call centers, a channel partner network and a robust customer referral program.

 

·

Direct Outside Sales Force. Our outside sales force typically resides and works within the markets we serve. Our outside sales force allows us to sell to those customers who prefer a face-to-face interaction.

 

·

Call Centers. Our call centers allow us to sell our energy products and services to customers without visiting their homes or businesses. Because every home or site is unique, we begin by talking with each prospective customer about their energy needs and savings goals. Then, using online satellite technology, our salesperson evaluates the suitability of the site for our products and services. If a solar energy system is an appropriate solution, our salesperson collects preliminary utility usage data and site information, and ultimately, provides a preliminary estimate of costs. If the customer desires to work with us, contracts can then be executed with e-signatures.

 

·

Door-to-Door Sales Force. Our door-to-door sales force consists of trained salespersons that identify and educate potential customers about our product and service offerings. As solar energy remains a new commodity for many homeowners, our trained sales force can help reach families that may not have considered solar energy.

 

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Channel Partner Network

 

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The Home Depot. Our products and services are available through The Home Depot stores located in most states where we have significant operations. We are the exclusive solar provider in the stores we serve. We primarily sell through a team of field energy specialists that speak to and qualify prospective customers in stores. In addition, we sell through point-of-purchase displays in the stores, and through other direct marketing strategies including in-store flyers, seminars, promotions, retail signage and displays, and a co-branded website. 

 

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Best Buy. We also offer our products and services in over 200 Best Buy stores across the nation, where SolarCity representatives are available to evaluate the feasibility of installing a residential solar energy system.

 

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Homebuilder Partners. Our products and services are available through a number of regional and national new home builders, including Shea Homes, Pulte, Taylor Morrison and Del Webb. These partners market solar energy systems through a variety of strategies, including advertising within their model homes, signage within their communities, realtor emails, newspaper inserts, online banners and co-branded flyers. Certain of these partners pre-pay for the electricity that will be produced by the solar energy system installed on the new home they sell, using the benefit of pre-paid solar energy as a selling point.

 

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Other Channel Partners. Our products and services are also available through partnerships with Tesla Motors, Direct Energy, Honda, Acura and BMW.

 

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Solar Ambassador Program. In 2014, we launched our Solar Ambassador program. The program is a network marketing program in which interested ambassadors are engaged as independent contractors to promote the benefits of solar energy and become eligible to receive cash rewards through customer referrals that result in the successful installation of solar energy systems.

We also market our products and services through a variety of direct marketing strategies designed to reach qualified homeowners and businesses, including radio ads and public radio sponsorships, newspaper and magazine ads, online banner ads, search engine marketing, direct mail, participation in trade shows, events and home shows, email marketing, public relations, social media, sweepstakes and promotions, newsletters, community programs and field marketing techniques. Our in-house marketing team manages and coordinates our media buying and customizes our content for each region.

Operations and Suppliers

We purchase major components such as solar panels and inverters directly from multiple manufacturers. We screen these suppliers and components based on expected cost, reliability, warranty coverage, ease of installation and other ancillary costs. As of December 31, 2015, our primary solar panel suppliers were Canadian Solar Inc., Trina Solar Limited, AUO Green Energy America Corp., REC Americas LLC, Hanwa Qcells America and Kyocera Solar, Inc., among others, and our primary inverter suppliers were ABB Inc., SolarEdge Technologies, Inc., Fronius USA, LLC, and Solectria Renewables, LLC, among others. We typically enter into master contractual arrangements with our major suppliers that define the general terms and conditions of our purchases, including warranties, product specifications, indemnities, delivery and other customary terms. We typically purchase solar panels and inverters on an as-needed basis from our suppliers at then-prevailing prices pursuant to purchase orders issued under our master contractual arrangements. While we generally do not enter into arrangements containing long-term pricing or volume commitments, we have entered into several long-term purchase commitments to procure solar panels, system components and other commodities, and we may increasingly do so in the future.

Our racking and mounting systems are manufactured by our Zep Solar subsidiary, as well as other contract manufacturers using our design.

We maintain over 80 centralized operations and maintenance facilities and a fleet of approximately 4,300 trucks and other vehicles to support our rapidly growing business. In California, our operations and maintenance facilities allow us to service more than 95% of the state’s population. This operational scale is fundamental to our business, as our field teams currently complete over 8,000 residential solar energy system installations each month, while our project management teams simultaneously manage thousands of projects as they move through the stages of engineering, permitting, installation and monitoring.

We offer a range of warranties and performance guarantees for our solar energy systems. We generally provide warranties of between 10 to 30 years on the generating and non-generating parts of the solar energy systems we sell, together with a pass-through of the inverter and module manufacturers’ warranties that generally range from 5 to 30 years. Where we sell the electricity generated by a solar energy system, we compensate customers if their system produces less energy over a specified performance period than our guarantee. We also provide ongoing service and repair during the entire term of the customer relationship. Costs associated with such ongoing service and repair have not been material to date, but are expected to increase as our customer base expands, inverters require replacement and the systems age.

 

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Competition

We believe our primary competitors are the traditional local utilities that supply energy to our potential customers. We compete with these traditional utilities primarily based on price, predictability of price and the ease by which customers can switch to electricity generated by our solar energy systems rather than fossil based alternatives. We believe that our favorable pricing and focus on lifetime customer relationships allows us to compete favorably with traditional utilities in the regions we service.

We also compete with companies that provide products and services in distinct segments of the downstream solar energy and energy-related products value chain. Many companies only install solar energy systems, while others only provide financing for these installations. In the residential solar energy system installation market, our primary competitors include Vivint Solar Inc., Sunrun Inc., NRG Home Solar, Sungevity, Inc., Trinity Solar, Verengo, Inc., and many smaller local solar companies. In the commercial solar energy system installation market, our competitors include SunPower Corporation, SunEdison LLC, Borrego Solar Systems, Inc., G&S Solar Installers, Cenergy Power and numerous other companies.

We believe that our favorable pricing, focus on lifetime customer relationships, and integrated customer-facing approach to delivering solar energy allows us to compete favorably with these companies. While we offer in-house sales, financing, engineering, installation, monitoring, and operations and maintenance, many of our competitors offer only a subset of the products and services we provide.

Intellectual Property

Our intellectual property is an essential element of our business, and our success depends, at least in part, on our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, trademark, copyright and other intellectual property laws, confidentiality agreements and license agreements to establish and protect our intellectual property rights.

As of December 31, 2015, SolarCity and our wholly owned subsidiaries had 76 issued patents and 250 patent applications pending with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 56 patents issued/registered and 111 patent applications pending with foreign patent and trademark offices, and 47 trademark registrations and 55 pending trademark applications. These patents and applications relate to various SolarCity technologies, such as solar cells, installation and mounting hardware, financial products, monitoring solutions and related software. Our issued patents start expiring in 2025. SolarCity intends to continue to file additional patent applications. “SolarCity,” “SolarCity and Sun logo,” “SolarGuard,” “SolarLease,” “PowerGuide,” “SunRaising,” “Rooftop Rewards,” “Solar Made Simple,” “Energy Explorer,” “Zep Solar,” “Zep Compatible,” “Zep Groove,” “Silevo,” “Triex,” and “Ilioss” are among SolarCity’s registered trademarks in the United States and, in some cases, in certain other countries. SolarCity’s other unregistered trademarks and service marks in the United States include: “Power Forever,” “Better Energy,” “SolarBid,” “SolarWorks” and “DemandLogic.”

All of our employees and independent contractors are required to sign agreements acknowledging that all inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments and other processes generated by them on our behalf are our property and assigning to us any ownership that they may claim in those works.

Securing Our Solar Energy Systems

Unless a customer fully prepays for a solar energy system, we file a uniform commercial code financing statement, or UCC-1, on the systems in the real property records where each system is located prior to or when the system is installed. We file the UCC-1 to provide notice of our interests in the solar energy system to anyone who might perform a title search on the address where the system is located. For loans financed by SolarCity, we also file the UCC-1 with the applicable state’s secretary of state.

A UCC-1 fixture filing is not a lien against a customer’s home and does not entitle us to the proceeds of the sale of a home in foreclosure. Typically, when a foreclosed home is sold by the lender, we negotiate with the prospective buyer to assume the existing agreement.  We believe the prospective buyer is generally motivated to assume the existing agreement to receive its benefits. The number of solar energy systems identified for recovery has been immaterial to date.

Government Regulation

We are not a “regulated utility” in the United States under applicable national, state or other local regulatory regimes where we conduct business. For our limited operations in Ontario, Canada, our subsidiary is subject to the regulations of the relevant energy regulatory agencies applicable to all producers of electricity under the relevant feed-in tariff, or FIT, regulations, including the FIT rates.

 

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To operate our systems, we obtain interconnection agreements from the applicable local primary electricity utility. Depending on the size of the solar energy system and local law requirements, interconnection agreements are between the local utility and either us or our customer. In almost all cases, interconnection agreements are standard form agreements that have been pre-approved by the local public utility commission or other regulatory body with jurisdiction over interconnection agreements. As such, no additional regulatory approvals are required once interconnection agreements are signed. We maintain a utility administration function, with primary responsibility for engaging with utilities and ensuring our compliance with interconnection rules.

Our operations are subject to stringent and complex federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the occupational health and safety of our employees, wage regulations and environmental regulations. For example, we are subject to the requirements of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act, as amended, or OSHA, and comparable state laws that protect and regulate employee health and safety. Our increased manufacturing operations also subject us to a number of environmental health and safety regulations.  We have a robust safety department led by safety professionals, and we expend significant resources to comply with these regulations, requirements and industry best practices.

Federal and/or state prevailing wage requirements, which generally apply to any “public works” construction project that receives public funds, may apply to installations of our solar energy systems on government facilities. The prevailing wage is the basic hourly rate paid on public works projects to a majority of workers engaged in a particular craft, classification or type of work within a particular area. Prevailing wage requirements are established and enforced by regulatory agencies. Our in-house prevailing wage personnel monitor and coordinate our continuing compliance with these regulations.

Government Incentives

U.S. federal, state and local governments have established various policies, incentives and financial mechanisms to reduce the cost of solar energy and to accelerate the adoption of solar energy. These incentives include tax credits, cash grants, tax abatements and rebates. These incentives help catalyze private sector investments in solar energy, energy efficiency and energy storage measures, including the installation and operation of residential and commercial solar energy systems.

The federal government currently provides an uncapped investment tax credit, or Federal ITC, under two sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or IRC: Section 48 and Section 25D, both of which were modified and extended at the end of 2015.

Section 48(a)(3) of the IRC allows a taxpayer to claim a credit of 30% of qualified expenditures for a commercial solar energy system that commences construction by December 31, 2019. The credit then declines to 26% for systems that commence construction by December 31, 2020 and to 22% for systems that commence construction by December 31, 2021.  The credit is scheduled to decline to a permanent 10% effective January 1, 2022. Historically, we have utilized the Section 48 commercial credit when available for both our residential and commercial projects, based on ownership of the solar energy system. The federal government also provides accelerated depreciation for eligible commercial solar energy systems. Department of Treasury regulations detailing how the commence construction requirements can be satisfied are expected by the end of the first quarter of 2016.

Section 25D of the IRC allows a taxpayer to claim a credit for a residential solar energy system that is owned by the homeowner. This credit is available at 30% for systems that are placed in service by December 31 2019, at 26% for systems placed in service in 2020, and at 22% for systems placed in service in 2021.  The credit is scheduled to expire effective January 1, 2022. MyPower customers can currently claim the Section 25D investment tax credit. Customers who purchase their solar energy systems for cash are also eligible to claim the Section 25D investment tax credit.

Approximately half of U.S. states offer a personal and/or corporate investment or production tax credit for solar, which are additive to the Federal ITC. Further, more than half of U.S. states, and many local jurisdictions, have established property tax incentives for renewable energy systems, which include exemptions, exclusions, abatements and credits.

Many state governments, investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and co-operative utilities offer rebates or other cash incentives for the installation and operation of a solar energy system or energy-related products. Capital costs or “up-front” rebates provide payments to solar customers based on the cost, size or expected production of a customer’s solar energy system. Performance-based incentives provide cash payments to a system owner based on the energy generated by their solar energy system during a pre-determined period, and they are paid over that time period. Some states and utilities also have established feed-in tariff programs that are a type of performance-based incentive where the system owner-producer is paid a set rate for the electricity their system generates and exports to the grid over a set period of time.

 

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Forty-one states, Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico have a regulatory policy known as net energy metering, or net metering, available to new customers. Net metering typically allows SolarCity’s customers to interconnect their on-site solar energy systems to the utility grid and offset their utility electricity purchases by receiving a bill credit at the utility’s retail rate for energy generated by their solar energy system that is exported to the grid in excess of electric load used by customers. Each of the states where we currently serve customers has adopted a net metering policy except for Texas, where certain individual utilities have adopted net metering or a policy similar to net metering. Typically, at the end of the billing period, the customer simply pays for the net energy used or receives a credit at the retail rate if more energy is produced than consumed.

Some states have established limits on net metering. For example, in October 2015, the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission capped the state’s net metering program at existing levels and net metering no longer is available to new customers. In late-December 2015, the Nevada Public Utilities Commission also effectively capped the state’s net metering program at existing levels and net metering no longer is available to new customers. In addition, the new rules adopted by the Nevada Public Utilities Commission include significant additional monthly charges on customers who interconnect their solar energy systems, a significant reduction in the amount of bill credit customer receive for energy generated by their solar energy system that is exported to the grid in excess of electric load used by customers, and application of the new rules to existing customers with solar energy systems. These actions have been criticized by solar and customer protection groups and we have challenged these new rules and their application to existing customers in filings with the Nevada Public Utilities Commission.

California investor-owned utilities are currently required to provide net metering to their customers until the total generating capacity of net metered systems exceeds 5% of the utilities’ “aggregate customer peak demand.” In January 2016, the California Public Utilities Commission established a new net metering program requiring that customers utilize a time-of-use tariff, with no participation cap that will apply after the current 5% cap is reached. Other states, such as New York and New Jersey, recently have increased their respective limits on net metering.

Sales of electricity and non-sale equipment leases by third parties face regulatory challenges in some states and jurisdictions, and our leases and power purchase agreements are third-party ownership arrangements. Other challenges pertain to whether third-party owned systems qualify for the same levels of rebates or other non-tax incentives available for customer-owned solar energy systems, and whether third-party owned systems are eligible for these incentives.

Many states also have adopted procurement requirements for renewable energy production. Twenty-nine states and Washington, D.C. have adopted an enforceable renewable portfolio standard, or RPS, or other mandated renewable capacity policy that requires covered entities to procure a specified percentage of total electricity delivered to customers in the state from eligible renewable energy sources, such as solar energy systems, by a specified date. In addition, seven other states have set voluntary goals for renewable generation. Roughly one-third of states with RPS policies require a minimum portion of the RPS be met by solar, or customer-generated solar, with substantial penalties for non-compliance. To prove compliance with such mandates, utilities typically must surrender renewable energy certificates, or RECs, to system owners, who often are able to sell RECs to utilities directly or in REC markets.

Employees

As of December 31, 2015, we had 15,273 total employees, of whom 15,219 were full-time employees. Approximately 6,873 worked in operations, installations and manufacturing; 5,661 in various sales and marketing related departments and 2,739 in general and administrative and research and development related departments.  In January 2016, following the recent actions by the Nevada Public Utilities Commission, we were forced to eliminate more than 550 jobs in Nevada, primarily affecting personnel in operations, installations and manufacturing, as well as sales and marketing related departments.  As of the date of this Annual Report, we are focused on relocating employees to other states and positions and reducing the impact of these job eliminations on our employees.  Our employees are not currently represented by any labor union or subject to any collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in June 2006 as a Delaware corporation. Our headquarters are located at 3055 Clearview Way, San Mateo, California 94402, and our telephone number is (650) 638-1028. You can access our website at www.solarcity.com. Information contained on our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this annual report on Form 10-K, and the inclusion of our website address in this annual report on Form 10-K is an inactive textual reference only. Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge on the Investors portion of our web site as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this annual report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before investing in our common stock. The risks described below are not the only risks facing our company. Any of the following risks and additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or those we currently view to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results or operations. In such case, you may lose all or part of your original investment.

Risks Related to our Operations

Existing electric utility industry regulations, and changes to regulations, may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar energy systems that may significantly reduce demand for our solar energy systems or adversely impact the economics of existing energy contracts.

Federal, state and local government regulations and policies concerning the electric utility industry, utility rate structures, interconnection procedures, internal policies and regulations promulgated by electric utilities, heavily influence the market for electricity generation products and services. These regulations and policies often relate to electricity pricing and the interconnection of customer-owned electricity generation. In the United States, governments and utilities continuously modify these regulations and policies. These regulations and policies could deter potential customers from purchasing renewable energy, including solar energy systems. This could result in a significant reduction in demand for our solar energy systems. For example, utilities commonly charge fees to large, industrial customers for disconnecting from the electric grid or for having the capacity to use power from the electric grid for back-up purposes. These fees could increase our customers’ cost to use our systems and make our product offerings less desirable, thereby harming our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, depending on the region, electricity generated by solar energy systems competes most effectively with higher priced peak-hour electricity from the electric grid, rather than the lower average price of electricity. Modifications to the utilities’ peak-hour pricing policies or rate design, such as a flat rate, would require us to lower the price of our solar energy systems to compete with the price of electricity from the electric grid.

Future changes to government or internal utility regulations and policies that favor electric utilities could also reduce our competitiveness, cause a significant reduction in demand for our products and services, and threaten the economics of our existing energy contracts. For example, in October 2015, the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission capped the state’s net metering program at existing levels and net metering no longer is available to new customers. In late-December 2015, the Nevada Public Utilities Commission also effectively capped the state’s net metering program at existing levels and net metering no longer is available to new customers. In addition, Nevada’s new rules include significant additional monthly charges on customers who interconnect their solar energy systems, significant reduction in the amount of bill credit for energy generated by their solar energy system that is exported to the grid in excess of electric load used by customers, and application of the new rules to existing customers with solar energy systems. These new rules and their application to existing customers have been challenged in filings with the Nevada Public Utilities Commission and we intend to pursue available remedies under state law, if necessary.  As a result of these new rules we have ceased our sales and installation operations in Nevada.  If these new rules are imposed as adopted, the new rules are not overruled legislatively, and challenges to these new rules are unsuccessful, demand for solar energy systems and services in Nevada will likely be significantly impaired, and we could see an increase in the default rate of existing energy contracts or we may find it necessary to renegotiate our pricing of affected customers.

In other jurisdictions, it has been proposed that additional fees and other charges be assessed on customers purchasing energy from solar energy systems. In particular, the Salt River Project, or SRP, in Arizona has imposed anticompetitive penalties on new solar customers in an attempt to exclude rooftop solar, and in response in March 2015 we filed a lawsuit in federal court in Arizona, asking the court to stop SRP’s anti-competitive behavior. In the event that effective net metering programs are limited in California and other key markets or any such fees or charges are imposed, our ability to attract new customers and compete with the price of electricity generated by local utilities in these jurisdictions may be severely limited, and such unaccounted for increases in the fees or charges applicable to existing customer agreements may increase the cost of energy to those customers and result in an increased rate of defaults under our customer agreements. Any of these results could reduce demand for our solar energy systems, harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We rely on net metering and related policies to offer competitive pricing to our customers in some of our key markets.

Forty-one states, Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico have a regulatory policy known as net energy metering, or net metering, available to new customers. Each of the states where we currently serve customers has adopted a net metering policy except for Texas, where certain individual utilities have adopted net metering or a policy similar to net metering. Net metering typically allows our customers to interconnect their on-site solar energy systems to the utility grid and offset their utility electricity purchases by receiving a bill credit at the utility’s retail rate for energy generated by their solar energy system that is exported to the grid in excess of the electric load used by the customers. At the end of the billing period, the customer simply pays for the net energy used or receives a credit at the retail rate if more energy is produced than consumed. Utilities operating in states without a net metering policy may receive solar electricity that is exported to the grid when there is no simultaneous energy demand by the customer without providing retail compensation to the customer for this generation.

Our ability to sell solar energy systems and the electricity they generate may be adversely impacted by the failure to expand existing limits on the amount of net metering in states that have implemented it, the failure to adopt a net metering policy where it currently is not in place, the imposition of new charges that only or disproportionately impact customers that utilize net metering or reductions in the amount or value of credit that customers receive through net metering. Our ability to sell solar energy systems and the electricity they generate may also be adversely impacted by the unavailability of expedited or simplified interconnection for grid-tied solar energy systems or any limitation on the number of customer interconnections or amount of solar energy that utilities are required to allow in their service territory or some part of the grid. For example, in October 2015, the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission capped the state’s net metering program at existing levels, and in late-December 2015, the Nevada Public Utilities Commission effectively capped the state’s net metering program at existing levels and imposed additional monthly charges on customers who interconnect their solar energy systems. In addition, utilities in some states, such as SRP in Arizona, have proposed imposing additional monthly charges on customers who interconnect solar energy systems installed on their homes. If such charges are imposed, the cost savings associated with switching to solar energy may be significantly reduced and our ability to attract future customers and compete with traditional utility providers could be impacted.  If such charges are imposed on existing customers in a way that adversely impacts the economics of existing energy contracts, as in Nevada, we could further see an increase in the default rate of existing energy contracts or we may find it necessary to renegotiate our pricing of affected customers.

Limits on net metering, interconnection of solar energy systems and other operational policies in key markets could limit the number of solar energy systems installed in those markets. For example, California investor-owned utilities are currently required to provide net metering to their customers until the total generating capacity of net metered systems exceeds 5% of the utilities’ “aggregate customer peak demand.” In January 2016, the California Public Utilities Commission established a new net metering program requiring that customers utilize a time-of-use tariff, with no participation cap that will apply after the current 5% cap is reached. New York is considering a net metering successor program through the Reforming the Energy Vision docket at the state Public Service Commission. If the caps on net metering in New York and other key markets are reached or if the amount or value of credit that customers receive for net metering is significantly reduced or eliminated, future customers will be unable to recognize the current cost savings associated with net metering and existing customers may not recognize the economic benefits that were available at the time their energy contracts were entered into. We rely substantially on net metering when we establish competitive pricing for our prospective customers and the absence of net metering for new customers could greatly limit demand for our solar energy systems and increase the default rate of existing energy contracts.

Regulatory limitations associated with technical considerations may significantly limit our ability to sell electricity from our solar energy systems in certain markets.

Regulatory limits associated with technical considerations may curb our growth in certain key markets. For example, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has promulgated small generator interconnection procedures that recommend limiting customer-sited intermittent generation resources, such as our solar energy systems, to a certain percentage of peak load on a given electrical feeder circuit. Similar limits have been adopted by various states and could constrain our ability to market to customers in certain geographic areas where the concentration of solar installations exceeds the limit. For example, Hawaiian electric utilities have adopted certain policies that limit distributed electricity generation in certain geographic areas. While these limits have constrained our growth in certain parts of Hawaii, policy developments in Hawaii generally have allowed distributed electricity generation penetration despite the electric utility-imposed limitations. Furthermore, in certain areas, we benefit from policies that allow for expedited or simplified procedures related to connecting solar energy systems to the power grid. If such procedures are changed or cease to be available, our ability to sell the electricity generated by solar energy systems we install may be adversely impacted. As adoption of solar distributed generation increases, along with the operation of large-scale solar generation in key markets such as California, the amount of solar energy being fed into the power grid will surpass the amount planned for relative to the amount of aggregate demand. Some utilities claim that within several years, solar generation resources may reach a level capable of causing an over-generation situation that could require some solar generation resources to be curtailed to maintain operation of the grid. The adverse effects of such curtailment without compensation could adversely impact our business, results of operations and future growth.

 

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Our business currently depends on the availability of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives. The expiration, elimination or reduction of these rebates, credits and incentives would adversely impact our business.

U.S. federal, state and local government bodies provide incentives to end users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar energy systems to promote solar electricity in the form of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives such as system performance payments, payments for renewable energy credits associated with renewable energy generation and the exclusion of solar energy systems from property tax assessments. We rely on these governmental rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives to lower our cost of capital and to encourage fund investors to invest in our funds. These incentives enable us to lower the price we charge customers for energy and for our solar energy systems. However, these incentives may expire on a particular date, end when the allocated funding is exhausted or be reduced or terminated as solar energy adoption rates increase. These reductions or terminations often occur without warning.

The federal government currently offers a 30% investment tax credit under Section 48(a)(3) and Section 25D of the IRC, or the Federal ITC, for the installation of certain solar power facilities until December 31, 2016. Additionally, under Section 48, energy storage systems that are installed at the time of the solar power facility and, as required by IRS guidelines, store the energy of the solar power facility, are also eligible for the Federal ITC.

The credit under Section 48(a)(3) has been modified to remain at 30% of qualified expenditures for a commercial solar energy system that commences construction by December 31, 2019, then decline to 26% for systems that commence construction by December 31, 2020 and to 22% for systems that commence construction by December 31, 2021.  The credit is scheduled to decline to a permanent 10% effective January 1, 2022.  Historically, we have utilized the Section 48 commercial credit when available for both our residential and commercial leases and power purchase agreements, based on ownership of the solar energy system.

The credit under Section 25D has been modified to remain 30% of qualified expenditures for a residential solar energy system owned by the homeowner that is placed in service by December 31 2019, then decline to 26% for systems placed in service by December 21, 2020, and to 22% for systems placed in service by December 31, 2021.  The credit is scheduled to expire effective January 1, 2022. MyPower customers can currently claim the Section 25D investment tax credit. Customers who purchase their solar energy systems for cash are also eligible to claim the Section 25D investment tax credit.

Department of Treasury regulations detailing how the commence construction requirements can be satisfied are expected by the end of the first quarter of 2016. Applicable authorities may adjust or decrease incentives from time to time or include provisions for minimum domestic content requirements or other requirements to qualify for these incentives.

Reductions in, eliminations of, or expirations of, governmental incentives could adversely impact our results of operations and ability to compete in our industry by increasing our cost of capital, causing us to increase the prices of our energy and solar energy systems and reducing the size of our addressable market. In addition, this would adversely impact our ability to attract investment partners and to form new financing funds and our ability to offer attractive financing to prospective customers.

Our business depends in part on the regulatory treatment of third-party owned solar energy systems.

Our leases and power purchase agreements are third-party ownership arrangements. Sales of electricity by third parties face regulatory challenges in some states and jurisdictions. Other challenges pertain to whether third-party owned systems qualify for the same levels of rebates or other non-tax incentives available for customer-owned solar energy systems, whether third-party owned systems are eligible at all for these incentives and whether third-party owned systems are eligible for net metering and the associated significant cost savings. In some states and utility territories, third parties that own solar energy systems are limited in the way that they may deliver solar energy to their customers. In jurisdictions such as Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Kentucky, North Carolina, Oklahoma and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power service territory, laws have been interpreted to prohibit the sale of electricity pursuant to our standard power purchase agreement. This has led us and other solar energy system providers that utilize third-party ownership arrangements to offer leases rather than power purchase agreements in such jurisdictions. Imposition of such limitations in additional jurisdictions or reductions in, or eliminations of, incentives for third-party owned systems could reduce demand for our systems, adversely impact our access to capital and cause us to increase the price we charge our customers for energy.

 

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The Office of the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Treasury has issued subpoenas to a number of significant participants in the solar energy installation industry, including us. The subpoena we received requires us to deliver certain documents in our possession relating to our participation in the U.S. Treasury grant program. These documents are being delivered to the Office of the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Treasury, which is investigating the administration and implementation of the U.S. Treasury grant program.

In July 2012, we and other companies that are significant participants in both the solar industry and the cash grant program under Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 received subpoenas from the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of the Inspector General to deliver certain documents in our respective possession. In particular, our subpoena requested, among other things, documents dated, created, revised or referred to since January 1, 2007 that relate to our applications for U.S. Treasury grants or communications with certain other solar companies or certain firms that appraise solar energy property for U.S. Treasury grant application purposes. The Inspector General is working with the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice to investigate the administration and implementation of the U.S. Treasury grant program, including possible misrepresentations concerning the fair market value of the solar power systems submitted for grant under that program made in grant applications by solar companies, including us. We intend to cooperate fully with the Inspector General and the Department of Justice and continue to produce documents and testimony as requested by the Inspector General. We are unable to anticipate when the Inspector General will conclude its review. If, at the conclusion of the investigation, the Inspector General concludes that misrepresentations were made, the Department of Justice could bring a civil action to recover amounts it believes were improperly paid to us. If the Department of Justice were successful in asserting such an action, we could then be required to pay damages and penalties for any funds received based on such misrepresentations (which, in turn, could require us to make indemnity payments to certain of our fund investors). Such consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition and prospects. Additionally, the period of time necessary to resolve the investigation is uncertain and this matter could require significant management and financial resources that could otherwise be devoted to the operation of our business.

If the Internal Revenue Service or the U.S. Treasury Department makes additional determinations that the fair market value of our solar energy systems is materially lower than what we have claimed, we may have to pay significant amounts to our financing funds or to our fund investors and such determinations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects.

We and our fund investors claim the Federal ITC or the U.S. Treasury grant in amounts based on the fair market value of our solar energy systems. We have obtained independent appraisals to support the fair market values we report for claiming Federal ITCs and U.S. Treasury grants. The Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department review these fair market values. With respect to U.S. Treasury grants, the U.S. Treasury Department reviews the reported fair market value in determining the amount initially awarded. The Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department may subsequently audit the fair market value and determine that amounts previously awarded must be repaid to the U.S. Treasury Department or that excess awards constitute taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A small number of our financing funds are undergoing such audits. With respect to Federal ITCs, the Internal Revenue Service may review the fair market value on audit and determine that the tax credits previously claimed must be reduced. If the fair market value is determined to be less than we reported, we may owe our financing fund or fund investors an amount equal to this difference, plus any costs and expenses associated with a challenge to that valuation. We could also be subject to tax liabilities, including interest and penalties.

The U.S. Treasury Department has previously determined to award U.S. Treasury grants for some of our solar energy systems at a materially lower value than we had established in our appraisals. As a result, we have been required to pay our fund investors a true-up payment or contribute additional assets to the associated financing funds. It is possible that the U.S. Treasury Department will make similar determinations in the future. In response to such shortfalls, two of our financing funds filed a lawsuit in the United States Court of Federal Claims to recover the difference between the U.S. Treasury grants they sought and the amounts the U.S. Treasury paid; to the extent that these lawsuits are successful, any recovery would be used to repay us for amounts we previously reimbursed those funds. Our fund investors have contributed to our financing funds at the amounts the U.S. Treasury Department most recently awarded on similarly situated energy systems in order to reduce or eliminate the need for us to subsequently pay those fund investors true-up payments or contribute additional assets to the associated financing funds.

The Internal Revenue Service or the U.S. Treasury Department may object to the fair market value of solar energy systems that we have constructed, or will construct, including any systems for which grants have already been paid, as a result of:

 

·

any pending or future audit,

 

·

the outcome of the Department of Treasury Inspector General investigation, or

 

·

changes in guidelines or otherwise.

 

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If the Internal Revenue Service or the U.S. Treasury Department were to object to amounts we have claimed as too high of a fair market value on such systems, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects. For example, a hypothetical 5% downward adjustment in the fair market value of the $501.2 million of U.S. Department of Treasury grant applications that have been awarded from the beginning of the U.S. Treasury grant program through December 31, 2015 would obligate us to repay up to $25.1 million to our fund investors.

We need to enter into additional substantial financing arrangements to facilitate our customers’ access to our solar energy systems, and if this financing is not available to us on acceptable terms, if and when needed, our ability to grow our business would be materially adversely impacted.

Our future success depends on our ability to raise capital from third-party fund investors to help finance the deployment of our residential and commercial solar energy systems. In particular, our strategy is to reduce the cost of capital through these arrangements to improve our margins, offset future reductions in government incentives and maintain the price competitiveness of our solar energy systems. If we are unable to establish new financing funds when needed, or on desirable terms, to enable our customers’ access to our solar energy systems with little or no upfront cost, we may be unable to finance installation of our customers’ systems, or our cost of capital could increase, either of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to establish new financing funds when needed or at all, or on desirable terms, to enable our customers’ access to our solar energy systems with little or no upfront cost, we may encounter difficulty financing installation of our customers’ systems, or our cost of capital could increase, either of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. To date, we have raised capital sufficient to finance installation of our customers’ solar energy systems from a number of financial institutions and other large companies. Our ability to draw on financing commitments is subject to the conditions of the agreements underlying our financing funds. If we do not satisfy such conditions due to events related to our business or a specific financing fund, developments in our industry (including related to the Department of Treasury Inspector General investigation) or otherwise, and as a result we are unable to draw on existing commitments, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition and prospects. If any of the financial institutions or large companies that currently invest in our financing funds decide not to invest in future financing funds to finance our solar energy systems due to general market conditions, concerns about our business or prospects, the pendency of the Department of Treasury Inspector General investigation or any other reason, or materially change the terms under which they are willing to provide future financing, we will need to identify new financial institutions and companies to invest in our financing funds and negotiate new financing terms.

In the past, challenges raising new funds have caused us to delay deployment of a substantial number of solar energy systems for which we had already signed leases or power purchase agreements with customers. For example, in late 2008 and early 2009, as a result of the state of the capital markets, our ability to finance the installation of solar energy systems was limited and resulted in a significant backlog of signed sales orders for solar energy systems. Our future ability to obtain additional financing depends on the continued confidence of banks and other financing sources in our business model and the solar energy industry as a whole. It could also be impacted by the liquidity needs of such financing sources. In addition, attracting future financing could be more difficult or costly to secure if the quality of our customer contracts, as perceived by our fund investors, were to decrease as a result of an increase in customer default rates, lower credit rating requirements for new customers or other factors. Solar energy has yet to achieve broad market acceptance and depends on continued support in the form of performance-based incentives, rebates, tax credits and other incentives from federal, state, local and foreign governments. If this support diminishes, our ability to obtain external financing, on acceptable terms or otherwise could be materially adversely affected. In addition, we face competition for these third-party investor funds. If we are unable to continue to offer a competitive investment profile, we may lose access to these funds or they may only be available on less favorable terms than are available to our competitors. Our current financing sources may be inadequate to support the anticipated growth in our business plans. Moreover, we will require additional capital in the near term, and we continue to look for opportunities to optimize our capital structure. We plan to pursue sources of such capital through various financing transactions and arrangements. Our inability to secure financing could lead to cancellations and could impair our ability to accept new projects and customers. In addition, our borrowing costs could increase, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have historically benefited from the declining cost of solar panels, and our business and financial results may be harmed as a result of increases in the cost of solar panels or tariffs on imported solar panels imposed by the U.S. government.

The declining cost of solar panels and the raw materials necessary to manufacture them has been a key driver in the pricing of our solar energy systems and customer adoption of this form of renewable energy. With an increase of solar panel and raw materials prices, our growth could slow, and our financial results could suffer. Further, the cost of solar panels and raw materials could potentially increase in the future due to a variety of factors which we cannot control, including the imposition of duties, subsidies and/or safeguards or other trade-related costs or penalties or shortages of essential components.

 

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The U.S. government imposes antidumping and countervailing duties on solar cells manufactured in China and/or Taiwan. Based on determinations by the U.S. government, the antidumping and countervailing duty rates range from approximately 33%-255%. Such antidumping and countervailing duties are subject to annual review and may be increased or decreased.

In addition, the U.S. government imposed additional tariffs on solar modules manufactured in China (with solar cells manufactured in other countries) and solar cells manufactured in Taiwan. In early January 2015, the U.S. government announced its affirmative final determinations in both the countervailing duty and antidumping cases against China and in the antidumping case against Taiwan.

Since these tariffs are reflected in the purchase price of the solar panels and cells, these tariffs are a cost associated with purchasing these solar products. In the past, we purchased a significant number of the solar panels used in our solar energy systems from manufacturers that were based in China. We continue to be affected by these tariffs/duties and any changes to them as many of the solar panels we currently purchase contain components, including solar cells, from China and Taiwan.

If additional tariffs are imposed or other negotiated outcomes occur, our ability to purchase these products on competitive terms or to access specialized technologies from countries like China and Taiwan could be limited. Further, foreign suppliers in other countries could also be the subject of these or future trade cases. Any of these events could harm our financial results by requiring us to account for the cost of trade penalties or to purchase and integrate solar panels or other system components from alternative and potentially higher-priced sources.

In September 2014, we acquired Silevo, a solar panel technology and manufacturing company. In May 2015, we were contacted by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, or CBP, to provide information regarding our importation of solar panels manufactured by Silevo in China.  In response to CBP’s request for information, we provided applicable documentation to CBP and engaged in a review with their staff.  Following this review, we reached an informal consensus with CBP that Silevo’s solar panels are exempt from the scope of the antidumping and countervailing duties orders. In addition, we have submitted a request for a scope ruling with the U.S. Department of Commerce for a determination on this issue.  We anticipate receiving a response from the Department of Commerce in March 2016, and we have ceased importing Silevo solar panels manufactured in China while we await their decision.  We believe that the Silevo solar panels are exempt from these tariffs.

Our ability to provide solar energy systems to new customers on an economically viable basis depends on our ability to finance these systems with fund investors who require particular tax and other benefits.

Our solar energy systems have been eligible for Federal ITCs or U.S. Treasury grants, as well as depreciation benefits. We have relied on, and will continue to rely on, financing structures that monetize a substantial portion of those benefits and provide financing for our solar energy systems. With the lapse of the U.S. Treasury grant program, our reliance on these tax-advantaged financing structures has substantially increased. If, for any reason, we were unable to continue to monetize those benefits through these arrangements, we may be unable to provide and maintain solar energy systems for new customers on an economically viable basis.

The availability of this tax-advantaged financing depends upon many factors, including:

 

·

our ability to compete with other renewable energy companies for the limited number of potential fund investors, each of which has limited funds and limited appetite for the tax benefits associated with these financings;

 

·

the state of financial and credit markets;

 

·

changes in the legal or tax risks associated with these financings;

 

·

non-renewal of these incentives or decreases in the associated benefits; and

 

·

no adverse changes in the regulatory environment affecting the economics of our existing energy contracts.

Under current law, the Federal ITC will be reduced from 30% of the cost of solar energy systems to 26% of the cost of solar energy systems for systems that commence construction by December 31, 2020, and then reduced again to 22% of the cost of solar energy systems for systems that commence construction by December 31, 2021, until the Section 25D investment tax credit expires and the Section 48(a)(3) investment tax credit declines to a permanent 10% effective January 1, 2022.

 

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In addition, U.S. Treasury grants are no longer available for new solar energy systems. Moreover, potential fund investors must remain satisfied that the structures we offer make the tax benefits associated with solar energy systems available to these investors, which depends both on the investors’ assessment of the tax law and the absence of any unfavorable interpretations of that law. Changes in existing law and interpretations by the Internal Revenue Service and the courts could reduce the willingness of fund investors to invest in funds associated with these solar energy system investments. In addition, changes by state energy regulators impairing the economics of existing energy contracts causing an increased risk of default may also reduce the willingness of fund investors to invest. We cannot assure you that this type of financing will be available to us. If, for any reason, we are unable to finance solar energy systems through tax-advantaged structures or if we are unable to realize or monetize depreciation benefits, we may no longer be able to provide solar energy systems to new customers on an economically viable basis. This would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A material drop in the retail price of utility-generated electricity or electricity from other sources would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We believe that a customer’s decision to buy renewable energy from us is primarily driven by their desire to pay less for electricity. The customer’s decision may also be affected by the cost of other renewable energy sources. Decreases in the retail prices of electricity from the utilities or other renewable energy sources would harm our ability to offer competitive pricing and could harm our business. The price of electricity from utilities could decrease as a result of:

 

·

the construction of a significant number of new power generation plants, including nuclear, coal, natural gas or renewable energy technologies;

 

·

the construction of additional electric transmission and distribution lines;

 

·

a reduction in the price of natural gas, including as a result of new drilling techniques or a relaxation of associated regulatory standards;

 

·

the development of energy conservation technologies and public initiatives to reduce electricity consumption; and

 

·

the development of new renewable energy technologies that provide less expensive energy.

A reduction in utility electricity prices would make the purchase of our solar energy systems or the purchase of energy under our lease and power purchase agreements less economically attractive. In addition, a shift in the timing of peak rates for utility-generated electricity to a time of day when solar energy generation is less efficient could make our solar energy system offerings less competitive and reduce demand for our products and services. If the retail price of energy available from utilities were to decrease for any reason, we would be at a competitive disadvantage. As a result of these or similar events impacting the economics of our customer agreements, we may be unable to attract new customers and we may experience an increased rate of defaults under our existing customer agreements.

A material drop in the retail price of utility-generated electricity would particularly adversely impact our ability to attract commercial customers.

Commercial customers comprise a significant and growing portion of our business, and the commercial market for energy is particularly sensitive to price changes. Typically, commercial customers pay less for energy from utilities than residential customers. Because the price we are able to charge commercial customers is only slightly lower than their current retail rate, any decline in the retail rate of energy for commercial entities could have a significant impact on our ability to attract commercial customers. We may be unable to offer solar energy systems in commercial markets that produce electricity at rates that are competitive with the unsubsidized price of retail electricity. If this were to occur, our business would be harmed because we would be at a competitive disadvantage compared to other energy providers and may be unable to attract new commercial customers.

The terms of our agreement with the Research Foundation for the State University of New York, as amended, pertaining to the construction of the Buffalo Riverbend Manufacturing Facility, among other things, require us to comply with a number of covenants during the term of the agreement. Any failure to comply with these covenants could obligate us to pay significant amounts to the Foundation and result in termination of the agreement.

In September 2014, Silevo entered into an amended and restated research and development alliance agreement, as amended from time to time, referred to as the Riverbend Agreement, with the Research Foundation for the State University of New York, referred to as the Foundation, for the construction of an approximately 1 million square foot manufacturing facility capable of producing 1-gigawatt of solar panels annually on an approximately 88.24 acre site located in Buffalo, New York, referred to as the Manufacturing Facility.

 

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Under the terms of the Riverbend Agreement, the Foundation will construct the Manufacturing Facility and install certain utilities and other improvements, with participation by us as to the design and construction of the Manufacturing Facility, and acquire certain manufacturing equipment designated by us to be used in the Manufacturing Facility and other specified items. The Foundation will cover construction costs related to the Manufacturing Facility and certain manufacturing equipment, in each case up to a maximum funding allocation from the State of New York, as well as additional specified items, and we will be responsible for any construction and equipment costs in excess of such amounts. The Foundation will own the Manufacturing Facility and manufacturing equipment it acquires for the project. We are also responsible for the acquisition of certain manufacturing equipment, which equipment we will own. Following completion of the Manufacturing Facility, we will lease the Manufacturing Facility from the Foundation for an initial period of 10 years for $2 per year plus utilities, and the Foundation will grant us the right to use the manufacturing equipment owned by it during the initial lease term at no charge.

In addition to the other obligations under the Riverbend Agreement, we must (i) use our best commercially reasonable efforts to commission the manufacturing equipment within three months of Manufacturing Facility completion and reach full production output within three months thereafter, (ii) employ personnel for at least 1,460 jobs in Buffalo, New York, with 500 of such jobs for the manufacturing operation at the Manufacturing Facility, for the initial two years of collaboration commencing after Manufacturing Facility completion, and we have committed to the retention of these jobs for five years, (iii) employ at least 2,000 other personnel in the State of New York for five years after Manufacturing Facility completion, (iv) employ a total of 5,000 people in the State of New York by the tenth anniversary of Manufacturing Facility completion, (v) spend or incur approximately $5 billion in combined capital, operational expenses and other costs in the State of New York during the 10 year period following full production, (vi) make reasonable efforts to provide first consideration to New York-based suppliers, (vii) invest and spend in manufacturing operations at a level that ensures competitive product costs for at least five years from full production, and (viii) negotiate in good faith with the Foundation on an exclusive “first opportunity basis” for 120 days before entering into any agreement for additional solar panel manufacturing capacity that Silevo may wish to develop during the term of the agreement. If we are not able to hire the specified number of employees or identify and qualify local vendors and suppliers, we would face the risk of not only failing to meet the performance criteria under the Riverbend Agreement but also not being capable of running the operations related to the Manufacturing Facility. If we fail in any year over the course of the ten-year term to meet these specified investment and job creation obligations, as described above, we would be obligated to pay a “program payment” of $41.2 million to the Foundation in any such year. In addition, we are subject to other events of defaults, including breach of these program payments and certain insolvency events, that would lead to the acceleration of all of the then unpaid program payments by us to the Foundation. Our failure to meet our contractual obligations under the Riverbend Agreement may result in our obligation to pay significant amounts to the Foundation in scheduled program payments, other contractual damages and/or the termination of our lease of the Manufacturing Facility. Any inability on our part to raise the capital necessary to operate the Manufacturing Facility and meet the specified requirements of the Riverbend Agreement during the 10-year period following full production would also cause a material adverse effect upon our business operations and prospects.

Our expectations as to the cost of building the Manufacturing Facility, acquiring manufacturing equipment and supporting our manufacturing operations may prove incorrect, which could subject us to significant expenses to achieve the desired benefits under the Riverbend Agreement. In the event of any cost overruns in construction, commissioning, acquiring manufacturing equipment or operating the Manufacturing Facility, we may incur additional capital and operating expenses that would have a material adverse effect upon our business operations and prospects.

Our projections as to the time and expense necessary to build the Manufacturing Facility and acquire the manufacturing equipment may prove incorrect and subject us to significant delay and additional expense.

We currently anticipate that construction of the Manufacturing Facility will be completed in March or April of 2016, after which time we will commence installation and commissioning of the manufacturing equipment. To date, we have experienced delays in purchasing some of the manufacturing equipment, due in part to longer lead times than we originally expected. While we currently believe that all manufacturing equipment will be delivered by the second quarter of 2017, we may experience additional unforeseen delays. Based on our current forecast, we estimate that we will commence manufacturing solar modules at the Manufacturing Facility in the third quarter of 2017.  However, this is an aggressive schedule and we may experience additional delays.

There are a number of risks which may delay the completion of the Manufacturing Facility and commencement of operations, including:

 

·

delays in placing orders for necessary equipment with long lead times;

 

·

failure or delay in obtaining necessary permits, licenses or other governmental support or approvals;

 

·

the time necessary for the construction of related utility and infrastructure improvements;

 

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·

unforeseen engineering problems; 

 

·

the inability to identify and hire qualified construction and other workers on a timely basis or at all;

 

·

construction delays and contractor performance shortfalls;

 

·

work stoppages or labor disruptions, including efforts by our employees to enter into collective bargaining agreements;

 

·

availability of raw materials and components from suppliers and any delivery delays in such materials or components;

 

·

delays resulting from environmental conditions, and any design changes or additions necessary to remediate prior environmental hazards at the site; and

 

·

adverse weather conditions, such as an extreme winter, and natural disasters.

Any delay in the completion of the Manufacturing Facility and commencement of our operations will result in us incurring additional expenses and could negatively affect our operating results, financial condition and prospects.

We may not be able to achieve anticipated production yields, efficiencies and quality, which would harm our production volume and increase our costs.

The Manufacturing Facility is expected to be the largest of its kind in the Western Hemisphere. Successfully achieving volume manufacturing of solar cells at our projected yield, efficiency and quality levels will be difficult, and we have little experience in manufacturing at these high volumes. As we expand our manufacturing capacity and qualify additional suppliers to support our projected production volume, we may initially experience lower yields than anticipated. Any deviations in our manufacturing processes may result in significant decreases in production yield, efficiency and quality, and in some cases, may cause production to be suspended or yield no output. If we cannot achieve planned yields over time, our production costs could increase and we may be unable to produce a sufficient amount of our solar panels to meet our installation needs.

In addition, Silevo’s Triex technology is novel and involves proprietary and complex manufacturing techniques, which may result in undetected errors or defects in the solar cells produced. Any defects in our solar panels could cause us to incur significant warranty, non-warranty and re-engineering costs, divert the attention of our engineering personnel, result in indemnification liability to our fund investors and significantly affect our customer relations and business reputation.

If we are unable to achieve our cost projections or otherwise control the costs associated with operating our manufacturing business, our financial condition and operating results will suffer.

As a result of initial production levels that under-utilize the Manufacturing Facility as we ramp up production, we anticipate that our initial production costs (on a per watt basis) will be relatively high. As we work to achieve full utilization of the Manufacturing Facility, we anticipate that the volume of production will reduce our production costs (on a per watt basis). There is no guarantee that we will be able to achieve planned cost targets, some of which will be beyond our control. For example, the costs of our raw materials and components, such as polysilicon and polysilicon wafers, could increase due to shortages as global demand for these products increases. Any failure to achieve our per watt cost projections would cause our financial condition and operating results to suffer. In addition, the pricing of our solar energy systems may become less competitive if our competitors are able to reduce their manufacturing and installation costs faster than we are able to.

Competition in the solar industry is intense, and future success and innovation will require additional research and development expenses.

The Manufacturing Facility is designed to be a high-technology volume-manufacturing facility. In constructing the Manufacturing Facility, including local utility infrastructure upgrades and procurement of manufacturing equipment, the State of New York is making a significant investment in the Buffalo-area economy. However, the solar panel manufacturing market is characterized by continually changing technology that requires improved features, such as increased efficiency, higher power output and enhanced aesthetics. In the time it takes us to achieve volume production of Silevo’s Triex technology, it is possible that additional innovations in solar technology could result in our technology and the Manufacturing Facility becoming less competitive or obsolete, which could harm our costs and adversely affect our business operations. This risk requires us to continuously focus on research and development, and will require significant on-going research and development expenses. If we cannot continually improve the efficiency and power output of our solar panels and reduce the cost of production, we could become less competitive in the market and our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

 

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Rising interest rates could adversely impact our business.

Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our business by increasing our cost of capital. For example:

 

·

rising interest rates would increase our cost of capital; and

 

·

rising interest rates may negatively impact our ability to secure financing on favorable terms to facilitate our customers’ purchase of our solar energy systems or energy generated by our solar energy systems.

The majority of our cash flows to date have been from solar energy systems under lease and power purchase agreements that have been monetized under various financing fund structures. One of the components of this monetization is the present value of the payment streams from our customers who enter into these leases and power purchase agreements. If the rate of return required by the fund investor rises as a result of a rise in interest rates, it will reduce the present value of the customer payment stream and consequently reduce the total value that we are able to derive from monetizing the payment stream. Interest rates are at historically low levels, partially as a result of intervention by the U.S. Federal Reserve. The U.S. Federal Reserve has taken actions to taper its intervention, and should these actions continue, it is likely that interest rates will rise, which could cause our cost of capital to increase and impede our ability to secure financing. As a result, our business and financial condition could be harmed.

In addition, we evaluate our business with a long-term view based on cash flows relating to our customer agreements, third-party financing funds and other arrangements. To date, we have taken limited actions to mitigate the risk of rising future interest rates. In 2014, we initiated a strategy of purchasing limited long-term derivative securities to economically hedge the effect of future interest rate increases. We may continue to engage in such transactions and the cost and outcomes of such transactions are currently not known.

We are expanding our international activities and customers, and plan to continue these efforts, which subject us to additional business risks, including compliance with international and trade regulations.

Our long-term strategic plans include international expansion and we intend to sell our solar energy products and services in international markets. For example, in August 2015, we acquired Ilioss to expand our operations into Mexico.

Risks inherent to our international operations include the following:

 

·

multiple, conflicting and changing laws and regulations, including energy regulations, export and import restrictions, tax laws and regulations, environmental regulations, labor laws and other government requirements, approvals, permits and licenses;

 

·

trade barriers and trade remedies such as export requirements, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and expenses, which could increase the prices of our products and make us less competitive in some countries;

 

·

potentially adverse tax consequences associated with our permanent establishment of operations in more countries, including repatriation of non-U.S. earnings taxed at rates lower than the U.S. statutory effective tax rate;

 

·

difficulties and costs in recruiting and retaining individuals skilled in international business operations;

 

·

changes in general economic and political conditions in the countries where we operate, including changes in government incentives relating to power generation and solar electricity, and availability of capital at competitive rates;

 

·

political and economic instability, including wars, acts of terrorism, political unrest, boycotts, curtailments of trade and other business restrictions;

 

·

the inability to work successfully with third parties with local expertise to co-develop international projects;

 

·

relatively uncertain legal systems, including potentially limited protection for intellectual property rights and laws, changes in the governmental incentives we rely on, regulations and policies which impose additional restrictions on the ability of foreign companies to conduct business in certain countries or otherwise place them at a competitive disadvantage in relation to domestic companies;

 

·

international business practices that may conflict with CBP or other legal requirements enforced by partner government agencies;

 

·

financial risks, such as longer sales and payment cycles and greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable; and

 

·

fluctuations in currency exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar.

 

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Doing business in foreign markets requires us to be able to respond to rapid changes in market, legal, and political conditions in these countries. The success of our business will depend in part on our ability to succeed in differing legal, regulatory, economic, social and political environments. We recognize that we must understand the risks and opportunities relating to trade remedies so that we can develop and implement policies and strategies that will be effective in each location where we do business.

We are subject to the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, and other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. We face significant risks if we fail to comply with the FCPA and other anticorruption laws that prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to foreign government officials, political parties, and private-sector recipients for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. In many foreign countries, particularly in countries with developing economies, it may be a local custom that businesses engage in practices that are prohibited by the FCPA or other applicable laws and regulations. We may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. Any violation of the FCPA, other applicable anticorruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions and, in the case of the FCPA, suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracting, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and reputation. In addition, responding to any enforcement action may result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees.

Our vertically integrated and our continued international expansion efforts may subject us to additional regulatory risks that may impact our operating results. For example, we will have to ensure we are in compliance with any bilateral and/or multilateral free trade agreements in addition to understanding trade remedies that directly affect those products and components involved in the construction of our solar energy systems, which are procured from vendors and manufacturers outside of the United States.  Some of these components, particularly solar panels and mounting hardware made from aluminum extrusions, may be subject to antidumping and countervailing duties.

While conducting an internal review of our supply chain and import practices, we recently identified certain potential instances in which our Zep Solar subsidiaries have imported system components and other products into the United States which were misclassified upon import. In addition, we discovered that certain parts may be subject to antidumping and countervailing duties.  In September 2015, we submitted a voluntary disclosure to the CBP of these and other potential misclassifications, and we intend to cooperate with CBP as we finalize this review.  As a result of these misclassifications, for the third quarter ended September 30, 2015, we recorded an accrual in the amount of approximately $5.3 million for import duties that we currently anticipate will be owed by our acquired subsidiaries to CBP relating to items imported since January 1, 2014.  We are continuing to review information related to imports from prior periods and anticipate that amounts of import duties for these periods will not be significant. If our revised classifications or estimates prove to be incorrect with respect to these import duties, the actual amounts owed may materially increase as we finalize our disclosure with CBP, which we anticipate will occur during the first quarter of 2016.  In addition, during the pendency of this review, we may be required to make full antidumping and countervailing duties deposits for imports determined to be inside the scope of the antidumping and countervailing duties orders.  Any increase in the anticipated costs of import duties would increase our operating costs, which could be harmful to our financial results.

In the event that we fail to or are unable to comply with the legal requirements in the jurisdictions in which we operate, we may be subject to significant fines, penalties and other amounts which could materially harm our operations and financial results.

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of past or future acquisitions, and integration of these acquisitions may disrupt our business and management and cause dilution to our stockholders.

In August 2015, we acquired Iliosson S.A. de C.V., a commercial and industrial solar project developer in Mexico.  In September 2014, we acquired Silevo, LLC, a solar panel technology and manufacturing company. In 2013, we acquired Zep Solar, Common Assets, certain assets of Paramount Solar and completed other smaller acquisitions. In the future, we may acquire additional companies, project pipelines, products or technologies, including additional photovoltaics companies, or enter into joint ventures or other strategic initiatives. Our ability as an organization to integrate acquisitions is unproven. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions or any other future acquisition or the acquisition may be viewed negatively by customers, financial markets or investors.

 

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Any acquisition has numerous risks, including the following:

 

·

difficulty in assimilating the operations and personnel of the acquired company;

 

·

difficulty in effectively integrating the acquired technologies or products with our current products and technologies;

 

·

difficulty in maintaining controls, procedures and policies during the transition and integration;

 

·

disruption of our ongoing business and distraction of our management and employees from other opportunities and challenges due to integration issues;

 

·

difficulty integrating the acquired company’s accounting, management information and other administrative systems;

 

·

inability to retain key technical and managerial personnel of the acquired business;

 

·

inability to retain key customers, vendors, and other business partners of the acquired business;

 

·

inability to achieve the financial and strategic goals for the acquired and combined businesses;

 

·

incurring acquisition-related costs or amortization costs for acquired intangible assets that could impact our operating results;

 

·

failure of due diligence processes to identify significant issues with product quality, legal and financial liabilities, among other things;

 

·

inability to assert that internal controls over financial reporting are effective; and

 

·

inability to obtain, or obtain in a timely manner, approvals from governmental authorities, which could delay or prevent such acquisitions.

In connection with our acquisitions of Silevo, Zep Solar and Paramount Solar, we issued approximately 8.8 million shares of our common stock. In connection with our acquisition of Silevo, we may issue additional common stock with an aggregate value of up to $150 million, subject to adjustments, upon the timely achievement of all earnout related milestones. Following the announcement of the production of our record-breaking rooftop solar panel, we amended the Silevo merger agreement to reflect new product specifications and manufacturing process and to extend the deadline for achieving certain manufacturing-related milestones. In addition, we typically offer additional equity compensation to continuing employees of these businesses. If we are unable to successfully integrate these businesses and technologies or are unable to otherwise achieve the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions, the related issuances of our securities may be highly dilutive to our existing stockholders.

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt; other actions we are forced to take to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness may not be successful.

Our total consolidated indebtedness was $2,753.7 million as of December 31, 2015. Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. In addition, our 2.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2018 issued in November 2013 (the “2018 Notes”), our 1.625% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 issued in September and October 2014 (the “2019 Notes”) and our Zero Coupon Convertible Senior Notes due 2020 issued in December 2015 (the “2020 Notes” and together with the 2018 Notes and the 2019, the “Notes”), are convertible into shares of common stock, and we may engage in similar issuances of convertible securities in the future to fund our operating and expansion plans. Our ability to issue additional securities and to refinance our existing indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

We expect to incur substantially more debt or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed above.

We and our subsidiaries expect to incur substantial additional debt in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments, some of which may be secured debt. Incurring such additional debt could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on existing indebtedness, including the Notes, when due and otherwise limiting our ability to respond to periods of increased liquidity pressure. Although our existing credit facilities restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, including secured indebtedness, but we may be able to obtain amendments and waivers of such restrictions or may not be subject to such restrictions under the terms of any subsequent indebtedness.

 

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We may have trouble refinancing our credit facilities or obtaining new financing for our working capital, equipment financing and other needs in the future or complying with the terms of existing credit facilities. If credit facilities are not available to us on acceptable terms, if and when needed, or if we are unable to comply with their terms, our ability to continue to grow our business would be adversely impacted.

As of December 31, 2015, we had the ability to draw up to an additional $234.2 million under all of our credit facilities. Our secured revolving credit facility, our primary working capital facility, currently has a maximum size of $500 million (with $398.5 million currently committed from several lenders and an additional $101.5 million subject to further conditions) that matures in December 2017. The working capital facility requires us to comply with certain financial, reporting and other requirements. The timing of our commercial projects has on occasion adversely affected our ability to satisfy certain financial covenants under these or prior facilities. While our lenders have given us waivers of certain covenants we have not satisfied in the past, there is no assurance that the lenders will waive or forbear from exercising their remedies with respect to any future defaults that might occur. In addition, we have amended our secured revolving credit facility to engage in transactions such as the issuance of the 2020 Notes and issue Solar Bonds debt securities. While we believe that some of the financial and other covenants are generally more favorable to us following these changes, a breach of our covenants may still occur in the future.

Further, there is no assurance that we will be able to enter into new credit facilities on acceptable terms. If we are unable to satisfy financial covenants and other terms under existing or new facilities or obtain associated waivers or forbearance from our lenders or if we are unable to obtain refinancing or new financings for our working capital, equipment and other needs on acceptable terms if and when needed, our business would be adversely affected.

We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to repurchase the Notes, including upon a fundamental change, and one of our current credit facilities prohibits us from repurchasing the issued Notes upon a fundamental change.

Holders of the Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. However, at such time that we may be required to repurchase the Notes, we may not have sufficient available cash or be able to obtain sufficient financing to allow for repurchase. In addition, one of our existing credit facilities prohibits us from repurchasing the Notes upon a fundamental change. We may enter into agreements in the future that similarly restrict our ability to repurchase the Notes and other securities. Our failure to repurchase the Notes when required would constitute a default which could also result in defaults under other agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof. Our ability to repurchase the Notes may also be limited by law or by regulatory authority.

We have incurred losses and may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

We have incurred net losses in the past, and we had an accumulated deficit of $316.7 million as of December 31, 2015. We may incur net losses from operations as we increase our spending to finance the expansion of our operations, expand our installation, engineering, administrative, sales and marketing staffs, and implement internal systems and infrastructure to support our growth. We do not know whether our revenue will grow rapidly enough to absorb these costs, and our limited operating history makes it difficult to assess the extent of these expenses or their impact on our operating results. Our ability to achieve profitability depends on a number of factors, including:

 

·

growing our customer base;

 

·

finding investors willing to invest in our financing funds;

 

·

maintaining and further lowering our cost of capital;

 

·

reducing the cost of components for our solar energy systems; and

 

·

reducing our operating costs by optimizing our design and installation processes and supply chain logistics.

Even if we do achieve profitability, we may be unable to sustain or increase our profitability in the future.

 

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If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, or if material weaknesses are discovered in future periods, the accuracy and timeliness of our financial and operating reporting may be adversely affected, and confidence in our operations and disclosures may be lost.

In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2013, we identified four material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting relating to (i) the costing of our solar system installations, (ii) accounting for and classification of redeemable noncontrolling interests, (iii) segregation of incompatible duties at our lease administrator and our controls over the data received from our administrator, and (iv) certain areas of our financial statement close process. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. These material weaknesses resulted from separate control deficiencies, as well as our misinterpretation of certain accounting standards, and resulted in the restatement of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009 and for certain interim periods in 2012 and 2013.

As a result of significant efforts by us and our Audit Committee, we have successfully remediated these material weaknesses and improved our internal control over financial reporting.

In connection with this annual report on Form 10-K, our management has performed an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015 pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2015.

If we are not able to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, or if additional material weaknesses are discovered in future periods, a risk that is significantly increased in light of the complexity of our business and investment funds, we may be unable to accurately and timely report our financial position, results of operations, cash flows or key operating metrics, which could result in additional late filings of our annual and quarterly reports under the Exchange Act, additional restatements of our consolidated financial statements or other corrective disclosures, a decline in our stock price, suspension or delisting of our common stock by The NASDAQ Stock Market, an inability to access the capital and commercial lending markets, defaults under our secured revolving credit facility and other agreements, or other material adverse effects on our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.

Updates or changes to our IT systems affecting our customer billing and control environment may disrupt our operations.

As we continue to evaluate and implement upgrades and changes to our IT systems affecting our customer billing and control environment, some of which are significant, we may encounter unexpected challenges, outages and other issues. Upgrades involve replacing existing systems with successor systems, making changes to existing systems, or cost-effectively acquiring new systems with new functionality. We are aware of inherent risks associated with replacing these systems, including accurately capturing data and system disruptions, and believe we are taking appropriate action to mitigate the risks through testing, training, and staging implementation, as well as ensuring appropriate commercial contracts are in place with third-party vendors supplying or supporting our IT initiatives. However, there can be no assurances that we will successfully launch these systems as planned or that they will occur without disruptions to our operations. IT system disruptions, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, or failure to successfully implement new or upgraded systems, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, and our ability to timely and accurately report our financial and operating results.

We are not currently regulated as a utility under applicable law, but we may be subject to regulation as a utility in the future.

Federal law and most state laws do not currently regulate us as a utility. As a result, we are not subject to the various federal and state standards, restrictions and regulatory requirements applicable to U.S. utilities. In the United States, we obtain federal and state regulatory exemptions by establishing “Qualifying Facility” status with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for all of our qualifying solar energy projects. In Canada, we also are generally subject to the regulations of the relevant energy regulatory agencies applicable to all producers of electricity under the relevant feed-in tariff regulations (including the feed-in tariff rates), however we are not currently subject to regulation as a utility. Our business strategy includes the continued development of larger solar energy systems in the future for our commercial and government customers, which has the potential to impact our regulatory position. Any local, state, federal or foreign regulations could place significant restrictions on our ability to operate our business and execute our business plan by prohibiting or otherwise restricting our sale of electricity. If we were subject to the same state, federal or foreign regulatory authorities as utilities in the United States or if new regulatory bodies were established to oversee our business in the United States or in foreign markets, then our operating costs would materially increase.

 

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A failure to hire and retain a sufficient number of employees in key functions would constrain our growth and our ability to timely complete our customers’ projects.

To support our growth, we need to hire, train, deploy, manage and retain a substantial number of skilled employees. In particular, we need to continue to expand and optimize our sales infrastructure to grow our customer base and our business, and we plan to expand our direct sales force. Identifying, recruiting and training qualified personnel requires significant time, expense and attention. It can take several months before a new salesperson is fully trained and productive. If we are unable to hire, develop and retain talented sales personnel or if new direct sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, we may not be able to realize the expected benefits of this investment or grow our business.

To complete current and future customer projects and to continue to grow our customer base, we need to hire a large number of installers in the relevant markets. Competition for qualified personnel in our industry is increasing, particularly for skilled installers and other personnel involved in the installation of solar energy systems. We also compete with the homebuilding and construction industries for skilled labor. As these industries seek to hire additional workers, our cost of labor may increase. The unionization of our labor force could also increase our labor costs. Shortages of skilled labor could significantly delay a project or otherwise increase our costs. Because our profit on a particular installation is based in part on assumptions as to the cost of such project, cost overruns, delays or other execution issues may cause us to not achieve our expected margins or cover our costs for that project. In addition, because we are headquartered in the San Francisco Bay Area, we compete for a limited pool of technical and engineering resources that requires us to pay wages that are competitive with relatively high regional standards for employees in these fields.

If we cannot meet our hiring, retention and efficiency goals, we may be unable to complete our customers’ projects on time, in an acceptable manner or at all. Any significant failures in this regard would materially impair our growth, reputation, business and financial results. If we are required to pay higher compensation than we anticipate, these greater expenses may also adversely impact our financial results and the growth of our business.

In our lease pass-through financing funds, there is a one-time reset of the lease payments, and we may be obligated, in connection with the resetting of the lease payments at true up, to refund lease prepayments or to contribute additional assets to the extent the system sizes, costs and timing are not consistent with the initial lease payment model.

In our lease pass-through financing funds, the models used to calculate the lease prepayments will be updated for each fund at a fixed date occurring after placement in service of all solar energy systems in a given fund or on an agreed upon date (typically within the first year of the applicable lease term) to reflect certain specified conditions as they exist at such date, including the ultimate system size of the equipment that was leased, how much it cost and when it went into service. As a result of such a true up, the lease payments are resized and we may be obligated to refund the investor’s lease prepayments or to contribute additional assets to the fund. Any significant refunds or capital contributions that we may be required to make could adversely affect our financial condition.

We have guaranteed a minimum return to be received by an investor in one of our financing funds and could be adversely affected if we are required to make any payments under this guarantee.

We have guaranteed payments to the investor in one of our financing funds to compensate for payments that the investor would be required to make to a certain third party as a result of the investor not achieving a specified minimum internal rate of return in this fund, assessed annually. Although the investor has achieved the specified minimum internal rate of return to date, the amounts of any potential future payments under this guarantee depend on the amounts and timing of future distributions to the investor from the fund and the tax benefits that accrue to the investor from the fund’s activities. Because of uncertainties associated with estimating the timing and amounts of future distributions to the investor, we cannot determine the potential maximum future payments that we could have to make under this guarantee. We may agree to similar guarantees in the future if market conditions require it. Any significant payments that we may be required to make under our guarantees could adversely affect our financial condition.

 

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It is difficult to evaluate our business and prospects due to our limited operating history.

Since our formation in 2006, we have focused our efforts primarily on the sales, financing, engineering, installation and monitoring of solar energy systems for residential, commercial and government customers. We launched our pilot commercial and residential energy storage products and services in late 2013, and revenue attributable to this line of business has not been material compared to revenue attributable to our solar energy systems. We may be unsuccessful in significantly broadening our customer base through installation of solar energy systems within our current markets or in new markets we may enter. Additionally, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in generating substantial revenue from our current energy-related products and services or from any additional products and services we may introduce in the future. Our limited operating history, combined with the rapidly evolving and competitive nature of our industry, may not provide an adequate basis for you to evaluate our operating and financing results and business prospects. In addition, we only have limited insight into emerging trends that may adversely impact our business, prospects and operating results. As a result, our limited operating history may impair our ability to accurately forecast our future performance.

We face competition from both traditional energy companies and renewable energy companies.

The solar energy and renewable energy industries are both highly competitive and continually evolving as participants strive to distinguish themselves within their markets and compete with large utilities. We believe that our primary competitors are the traditional utilities that supply energy to our potential customers. We compete with these utilities primarily based on price, predictability of price and the ease by which customers can switch to electricity generated by our solar energy systems. If we cannot offer compelling value to our customers based on these factors, then our business will not grow. Utilities generally have substantially greater financial, technical, operational and other resources than we do. As a result of their greater size, these competitors may be able to devote more resources to the research, development, promotion and sale of their products or respond more quickly to evolving industry standards and changes in market conditions than we can. Utilities could also offer other value-added products and services that could help them compete with us even if the cost of electricity they offer is higher than ours. In addition, a majority of utilities’ sources of electricity is non-solar, which may allow utilities to sell electricity more cheaply than electricity generated by our solar energy systems.

We also compete with solar companies in the downstream value chain of solar energy. For example, we face competition from purely finance driven organizations which then subcontract out the installation of solar energy systems, from installation businesses that seek financing from external parties, from large construction companies and utilities and increasingly from sophisticated electrical and roofing companies. Some of these competitors specialize in either the residential or commercial solar energy markets, and some may provide energy at lower costs than we do. Many of our competitors also have significant brand name recognition and have extensive knowledge of our target markets. Competitors have increasingly begun vertically integrating their operations to offer comprehensive products and services offerings similar to ours, and, recently, we have seen increased consolidation of competitors in our primary markets. For us to remain competitive, we must distinguish ourselves from our competitors by offering an integrated approach that successfully competes with each level of products and services offered by our competitors at various points in the value chain. As consolidation in our markets increases and more of our competitors develop an integrated approach similar to ours, our marketplace differentiation may suffer.

We also face competition in the energy-related products and services markets and we expect to face competition in additional markets as we introduce new products and services. As the solar industry grows and evolves, we will also face new competitors who are not currently in the market. Our failure to adapt to changing market conditions and to compete successfully with existing and new competitors could limit our growth and could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

Projects for our significant commercial and government customers involve concentrated project risks that may cause significant changes in our financial results.

During any given financial reporting period, we typically have ongoing significant projects for commercial and governmental customers that represent a significant portion of our potential financial results for such period. For example, Walmart is a significant customer for which we have installed a substantial number of solar energy systems. These larger projects create concentrated operating and financial risks. The effect of recognizing revenue or other financial measures on the sale of a larger project, or the failure to recognize revenue or other financial measures as anticipated in a given reporting period because a project is not yet completed under applicable accounting rules by period end, may materially impact our quarterly or annual financial results. In addition, if construction, warranty or operational issues arise on a larger project, or if the timing of such projects unexpectedly shifts for other reasons, such issues could have a material impact on our financial results. If we are unable to successfully manage these significant projects in multiple markets, including our related internal processes and external construction management, or if we are unable to continue to attract such significant customers and projects in the future, our financial results could be harmed.

 

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We depend on a limited number of suppliers of solar panels and other system components to adequately meet anticipated demand for our solar energy systems. Any shortage, delay or component price change from these suppliers could result in sales and installation delays, cancellations and loss of our ability to effectively compete.

We purchase solar panels, inverters and other system components from a limited number of suppliers, which makes us susceptible to quality issues, shortages and price changes. If we fail to develop, maintain and expand our relationships with existing or new suppliers, we may be unable to adequately meet anticipated demand for our solar energy systems or we may only be able to offer our systems at higher costs or after delays. If one or more of the suppliers that we rely upon to meet anticipated demand ceases or reduces production, we may be unable to satisfy this demand due to an inability to quickly identify alternate suppliers or to qualify alternative products on commercially reasonable terms. In particular, there are a limited number of inverter suppliers. Once we design a system for use with a particular inverter, if that type of inverter is not readily available at an anticipated price, we may incur additional delay and expense to redesign the system.

In addition, production of solar panels involves the use of numerous raw materials and components. Several of these have experienced periods of limited availability, particularly polysilicon, as well as indium, cadmium telluride, aluminum and copper. The manufacturing infrastructure for some of these raw materials and components has a long lead time, requires significant capital investment and relies on the continued availability of key commodity materials, potentially resulting in an inability to meet demand for these components. The prices for these raw materials and components fluctuate depending on global market conditions and demand and we may experience rapid increases in costs or sustained periods of limited supplies.

In addition to purchasing from New York-based suppliers, we anticipate that we will need to purchase supplies globally in order to meet the anticipated production output of the Manufacturing Facility. Despite our efforts to obtain raw materials and components from multiple sources whenever possible, many of our suppliers may be single-source suppliers of certain components. If we are not able to maintain long-term supply agreements or identify and qualify multiple sources for raw materials and components, our access to supplies at satisfactory prices, volumes and quality levels may be harmed. We may also experience delivery delays of raw materials and components from suppliers in various global locations. In addition, we may be unable to establish alternate supply relationships or obtain or engineer replacement components in the short term, or at all, at favorable prices or costs. Qualifying alternate suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain components may be time-consuming and costly and may force us to make modifications to our product designs.

Our need to purchase supplies globally in order to meet the anticipated production output of the Manufacturing Facility and our continued international expansion further subjects us to risks relating to currency fluctuations. Any decline in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar compared to the functional currency of our component suppliers could increase our component prices. In addition, the state of the financial markets could limit our suppliers’ ability to raise capital if they are required to expand their production to meet our needs or satisfy their operating capital requirements. Changes in economic and business conditions, wars, governmental changes and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ solvency and ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. Any of these shortages, delays or price changes could limit our growth, cause cancellations or adversely affect our profitability and ability to effectively complete in the markets in which we operate.

Our operating results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter, which could make our future performance difficult to predict and could cause our operating results for a particular period to fall below expectations, resulting in a severe decline in the price of our common stock.

Our quarterly operating results are difficult to predict and may fluctuate significantly in the future. We have experienced seasonal and quarterly fluctuations in the past. However, given that we are an early-stage public company operating in a rapidly growing industry, those fluctuations may be masked by our recent growth rates and thus may not be readily apparent from our historical operating results. As such, our past quarterly operating results may not be good indicators of future performance.

In addition to the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, the following factors could cause our operating results to fluctuate:

 

·

expiration or initiation of any rebates or incentives;

 

·

significant fluctuations in customer demand for our products and services;

 

·

our ability to complete installations in a timely manner due to market conditions resulting in inconsistently available financing;

 

·

our ability to continue to expand our operations, and the amount and timing of expenditures related to this expansion;

 

·

actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;

 

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·

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital-raising activities or commitments; 

 

·

changes in our pricing policies or terms or changes in those of our competitors, including utilities; and

 

·

actual or anticipated developments in our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape.

For these or other reasons, the results of any prior quarterly or annual periods should not be relied upon as indications of our future performance. In addition, our actual revenue, key operating metrics and other operating results in future quarters may fall short of the expectations of investors and financial analysts, which could have a severe adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.

We act as the licensed general contractor for our customers and are subject to risks associated with construction, cost overruns, delays, regulatory compliance and other contingencies, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We are a licensed contractor or use licensed subcontractors in every community we service, and we are responsible for every customer installation. For our residential projects, we are the general contractor, construction manager and installer. For our commercial projects, we are the general contractor and construction manager, and we have historically relied on licensed subcontractors to install these commercial systems. We may be liable to customers for any damage we cause to their home or facility and belongings or property during the installation of our systems. For example, we frequently penetrate our customers’ roofs during the installation process and may incur liability for the failure to adequately weatherproof such penetrations following the completion of construction. In addition, shortages of skilled subcontractor labor for our commercial projects could significantly delay a project or otherwise increase our costs. Because our profit on a particular installation is based in part on assumptions as to the cost of such project, cost overruns, delays or other execution issues may cause us to not achieve our expected margins or not cover our costs for that project.

In addition, the installation of solar energy systems and energy-storage systems requiring building modifications are subject to oversight and regulation in accordance with national, state and local laws and ordinances relating to building codes, safety, utility interconnection and metering, environmental protection and related matters. It is difficult and costly to track the requirements of every individual authority having jurisdiction over our installations and to design solar energy systems to comply with these varying standards. Any new government regulations or utility policies pertaining to our systems may result in significant additional expenses to us and our customers and, as a result, could cause a significant reduction in demand for our systems.

Compliance with occupational safety and health requirements and best practices can be costly, and noncompliance with such requirements may result in potentially significant monetary penalties, operational delays and adverse publicity.

The installation of solar energy systems requires our employees to work at heights with complicated and potentially dangerous electrical systems. The evaluation and installation of our energy-related products requires our employees to work in locations that may contain potentially dangerous levels of asbestos, lead or mold. We also maintain a fleet of over 3,000 vehicles that our employees use in the course of their work. There is substantial risk of serious injury or death if proper safety procedures are not followed. Our operations are subject to regulation under the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act, or OSHA, and equivalent state laws. Changes to OSHA requirements, or stricter interpretation or enforcement of existing laws or regulations, could result in increased costs. If we fail to comply with applicable OSHA regulations, even if no work-related serious injury or death occurs, we may be subject to civil or criminal enforcement and be required to pay substantial penalties, incur significant capital expenditures or suspend or limit operations. In the past, we have had workplace accidents and received citations from OSHA regulators for alleged safety violations, resulting in fines and operational delays for certain projects. Any such accidents, citations, violations, injuries or failure to comply with industry best practices may subject us to adverse publicity, damage our reputation and competitive position and adversely affect our business.

 

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Problems with product quality or performance may cause us to incur warranty expenses and performance guarantee expenses, may lower the residual value of our solar energy systems and may damage our market reputation and adversely affect our financial performance and valuation.

Our solar energy system warranties are lengthy. Customers who buy energy from us under leases or power purchase agreements are covered by warranties equal to the length of the term of these agreements—typically 20 years for leases and power purchase agreements and 30 years for MyPower loan agreements. Depending on the state where they live, customers who purchase our solar energy systems for cash are covered by a warranty up to 10 years in duration. We also make extended warranties available at an additional cost to customers who purchase our solar energy systems for cash. In addition, we provide a pass-through of the inverter and panel manufacturers’ warranties to our customers, which generally range from 5 to 25 years. One of these third-party manufacturers could cease operations and no longer honor these warranties, leaving us to fulfill these potential obligations to our customers. For example, Evergreen Solar, Inc., one of our former solar panel suppliers, filed for bankruptcy in August 2011. Further, we provide a performance guarantee with our leased solar energy systems that compensates a customer on an annual basis if their system does not meet the electricity production guarantees set forth in their lease.

Because of the limited operating history of our solar energy systems, we have been required to make assumptions and apply judgments regarding a number of factors, including our anticipated rate of warranty claims and the durability, performance and reliability of our solar energy systems. We have made these assumptions based on the historic performance of similar systems or on accelerated life cycle testing. Our assumptions could prove to be materially different from the actual performance of our systems, causing us to incur substantial expense to repair or replace defective solar energy systems in the future or to compensate customers for systems that do not meet their production guarantees. Product failures or operational deficiencies would also reduce our revenue from power purchase agreements because they are dependent on system production. Any widespread product failures or operating deficiencies may damage our market reputation and adversely impact our financial results.

In addition, we amortize costs of our solar energy systems over 30 years, which typically exceeds the period of the component warranties and the corresponding payment streams from our operating lease arrangements with our customers. In addition, we typically bear the cost of removing the solar energy systems at the end of the lease term. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict how future environmental regulations may affect the costs associated with the removal, disposal and recycling of our solar energy systems. Consequently, if the residual value of the systems is less than we expect at the end of the lease, after giving effect to any associated removal and redeployment costs, we may be required to accelerate all or some of the remaining unamortized expenses. This could materially impair our future operating results.

Compliance with environmental regulations can be expensive, and noncompliance with these regulations may result in adverse publicity and potentially significant monetary damages and fines.

We are required to comply with all foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations regarding pollution control and protection of the environment. In addition, under some statutes and regulations, a government agency, or other parties, may seek recovery and response costs from operators of property where releases of hazardous substances have occurred or are ongoing, even if the operator was not responsible for such release and not otherwise at fault. While we and the State of New York have performed environmental diligence relating to the construction of the Manufacturing Facility, the site where the Manufacturing Facility is to be located is on the former site of Republic Steel and has been considered a “brownfield.”

The operation of Silevo’s manufacturing and research and development facilities, including in Hangzhou, China, Buffalo, New York and Fremont, California, involves the use of hazardous chemicals and materials which may subject us to liabilities for any releases or other failures to comply with applicable laws, regulations and policies. Any failure by us to maintain effective controls regarding the use of hazardous materials or to obtain and maintain all necessary permits could subject us to potentially significant fines and damages or interrupt our operations.

Product liability claims against us could result in adverse publicity and potentially significant monetary damages.

We would be exposed to product liability claims if one of our solar energy systems or other products injured someone. Because solar energy systems and many of our other current and anticipated products are electricity-producing devices, it is possible that consumers could be injured by our products for many reasons, including product malfunctions, defects or improper installation. We rely on our general liability insurance to cover product liability claims and have not obtained separate product liability insurance. Any product liability claim we face could be expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention. Any product liability claims against us and any resulting adverse outcomes could result in potentially significant monetary damages that could require us to make significant payments, as well as subject us to adverse publicity, damage our reputation and competitive position or adversely affect sales of our systems and other products.

 

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Damage to our brand and reputation would harm our business and results of operations.

We depend significantly on our reputation for high-quality products and services, best-in-class engineering, exceptional customer service and the brand name “SolarCity” to attract new customers and grow our business. Our brand and reputation could be significantly impaired if we fail to continue to deliver our solar energy systems and our other energy products and services within the planned timelines, if our products and services do not perform as anticipated or if we damage any of our customers’ properties or cancel projects. In addition, if we fail to deliver, or fail to continue to deliver, high-quality products and services to our customers through our long-term relationships, our customers will be less likely to purchase future products and services from us, which is a key strategy to achieve our desired growth. In addition to our other marketing efforts, we also depend greatly on referrals from existing customers for our growth. Therefore, our inability to meet or exceed our current customers’ expectations would harm our reputation and growth through referrals.

If we fail to manage our recent and future growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of customer service or adequately address competitive challenges.

We have experienced significant growth in recent periods and we intend to continue to expand our business significantly within existing markets and in a number of new foreign and domestic locations in the future. This growth has placed, and any future growth may place, a significant strain on our management, operational and financial infrastructure. In particular, we will be required to expand, train and manage our growing employee base. Our management will also be required to maintain and expand our relationships with customers, suppliers and other third parties and attract new customers and suppliers, as well as to manage multiple geographic locations and regulatory requirements.

In addition, our current and planned operations, personnel, systems and procedures might be inadequate to support our future growth and may require us to make additional unanticipated investments in our infrastructure. Our success and ability to further scale our business will depend in part on our ability to manage these changes in a cost-effective and efficient manner. If we cannot manage our growth, we may be unable to take advantage of market opportunities, execute our business strategies or respond to competitive pressures. This could also result in declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increased costs, difficulties in introducing new products and services or other operational difficulties. Any failure to effectively manage growth could adversely impact our business and reputation.

We may not be successful in leveraging our customer base to grow our business through sales of other energy products and services.

To date, we have derived substantially all of our revenue and cash receipts from the sale of solar energy systems and the sale of energy under our long-term customer agreements. While we continue to develop and offer innovative energy-related products and services, such as our Demand Logic and residential energy storage products, customer demand for these offerings may be more limited than we anticipate. We may not be successful in completing development of these products as a result of research and development difficulties, technical issues, regulatory issues, availability of third-party products or other reasons. Even if we are able to offer these or other additional products and services, we may not successfully generate meaningful customer demand to make these offerings viable. Our growth will be limited if we fail to deliver these additional products and services, if the costs associated with bringing these additional products and services to market is greater than we anticipate, if customer demand for these offerings is smaller than we anticipate or if our strategies to implement new sales approaches and acquire new customers are not successful.

Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.

A key component of our growth strategy is to develop or expand our strategic relationships with third parties. For example, in an effort to generate new customers, we are investing resources in establishing relationships with leaders in other industries, such as trusted retailers and commercial homebuilders. Identifying partners and negotiating relationships requires significant time and resources. Our ability to grow our business could be impaired if we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with these third parties. Even if we are able to establish these relationships, we may not be able to execute our goal of leveraging these relationships to meaningfully expand our business and customer base. This would limit our growth potential and our opportunities to generate significant additional revenue or cash receipts.

 

31


 

The loss of one or more members of our senior management or key employees may adversely affect our ability to implement our strategy.

We depend on our experienced management team and the loss of one or more key executives could have a negative impact on our business. In particular, we are dependent on the services of our chief executive officer and co-founder, Lyndon R. Rive, and our chief technology officer and co-founder, Peter J. Rive. We also depend on our ability to retain and motivate key employees and attract qualified new employees. Our founders and our key employees are not bound by employment agreements for any specific term, and as a result, we may be unable to replace key members of our management team and key employees in the event we lose their services. Integrating new employees into our management team could prove disruptive to our operations, require substantial resources and management attention and ultimately prove unsuccessful. An inability to attract and retain sufficient managerial personnel who have critical industry experience and relationships could limit or delay our strategic efforts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The production and installation of solar energy systems depends heavily on suitable meteorological conditions. If meteorological conditions are unexpectedly unfavorable, the electricity production from our solar energy systems may be substantially below our expectations and our ability to timely deploy new systems may be adversely impacted.

The energy produced and revenue and cash receipts generated by a solar energy system depend on suitable solar and weather conditions, both of which are beyond our control. Furthermore, components of our systems, such as panels and inverters, could be damaged by severe weather, such as hailstorms or tornadoes. In these circumstances, we generally would be obligated to bear the expense of repairing or replacing the damaged solar energy systems that we own. Sustained unfavorable weather also could unexpectedly delay our installation of solar energy systems, leading to increased expenses and decreased revenue and cash receipts in the relevant periods. For example, certain states in which we operate, such as New York and Massachusetts, commonly experience inclement winter weather, and the impacts of significant rainfall from El Niño are expected to continue to impact our operations in California, Mexico and other areas. Weather patterns could change, making it harder to predict the average annual amount of sunlight striking each location where we install. This could make our solar energy systems less economical overall or make individual systems less economical. Any of these events or conditions could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business may be harmed if we fail to properly protect our intellectual property.

We believe that the success of our business depends in part on our proprietary technology, including our hardware, software, information, processes and know-how. We rely on many forms of intellectual property rights to secure our technology, including trade secrets and patents. We cannot be certain that we have adequately protected or will be able to adequately protect our technology, that our competitors will not be able to use our existing technology or develop similar technology independently, that any patents or other intellectual property rights held by us will be broad enough to protect our technology or that foreign intellectual property laws will adequately protect us. Moreover, our patents and other intellectual property rights may not provide us with a competitive advantage.

Despite our precautions, it may be possible for third parties to obtain and use our intellectual property without our consent. Reverse engineering, unauthorized use or other misappropriation of our proprietary technology could enable third parties to benefit from our technology without compensating us for doing so. In addition, our proprietary technology may not be adequately protected because:

 

·

our systems may be subject to intrusions, security breaches or targeted thefts of our trade secrets;

 

·

people may not be deterred from misappropriating our technology despite the existence of laws or contracts prohibiting it;

 

·

unauthorized use of our intellectual property may be difficult to detect and expensive and time-consuming to remedy, and any remedies obtained may be inadequate to restore protection of our intellectual property;

 

·

the laws of other countries in which we manufacture our solar products, such as Silevo’s joint venture manufacturing company with partners in China and other countries in the Asia/Pacific region, may offer little or no protection for our proprietary technology; and

 

·

reports we may be required to file in connection with any government-sponsored research contracts may disclose some of our sensitive confidential information because they are or will be generally available to the public.

Any such activities or any other inabilities to adequately protect our proprietary rights could harm our ability to compete, to generate revenue and to grow our business.

 

32


 

Claims of patent and other intellectual property infringement are complex and their outcomes are uncertain, and the costs associated with such claims may be high and could harm our business.

Our success in operating our business, including operation of the Manufacturing Facility, depends largely on our ability to use and develop our proprietary technologies and manufacturing know-how without infringing or misappropriating the intellectual property rights of third parties, many of whom have robust patent portfolios, greater capital resources and decades of manufacturing experience. In addition, as we have gained greater visibility and market exposure as a public company, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims. Any claim of infringement by a third party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial legal costs defending against the claim and could distract our management and technical personnel from our business. In particular, the validity and scope of claims relating to photovoltaic technology patents may be highly uncertain because they involve complex scientific, legal and factual considerations and analysis. Furthermore, we could be subject to a judgment or voluntarily enter into a settlement, either of which could require us to pay substantial damages. A judgment or settlement could also include an injunction, a court order or other agreement that could prevent us from operating the Manufacturing Facility and producing our products. In addition, we might elect or be required to seek a license for the use of third-party intellectual property, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or if available, the payments under such license may harm our operating results and financial condition. Alternatively, we may be required to develop non-infringing technology, redesign our products or alter our manufacturing techniques and processes, each of which could require significant research and development efforts and expenses and may ultimately not be successful. Any of these events could seriously harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

We are subject to legal proceedings and regulatory inquiries and we may be named in additional claims or legal proceedings or become involved in regulatory inquiries, all of which are costly, distracting to our core business and could result in an unfavorable outcome or a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or the trading price for our securities.

We are involved in claims, legal proceedings (such as the class action and derivative lawsuits filed against us) and receive inquiries from government and regulatory agencies (such as the pending Treasury and Department of Labor investigations) that arise from the normal business activities. In addition, from time to time, third parties may assert claims against us. We evaluate all claims, lawsuits and investigations with respect to their potential merits, our potential defenses and counter claims, settlement or litigation potential and the expected effect on us. In the event that we are involved in significant disputes or are the subject of a formal action by a regulatory agency, we could be exposed to costly and time-consuming legal proceedings that could result in any number of outcomes. Although outcomes of such actions vary, any claims, proceedings or regulatory actions initiated by or against us, whether successful or not, could result in expensive costs of defense, costly damage awards, injunctive relief, increased costs of business, fines or orders to change certain business practices, significant dedication of management time, diversion of significant operational resources or some other harm to our business. In any of these cases, our business, financial condition, results of operations or the trading price for our securities could be negatively impacted.

We make a provision for a liability relating to legal matters when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These provisions are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, estimated settlements, legal rulings, advice of legal counsel and other information and events pertaining to a particular matter. In our opinion, resolution of all current matters is not expected to have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. However, depending on the nature and timing of any such controversy, an unfavorable resolution of a matter could materially affect our future business, financial condition or results of operations, or all of the foregoing, in a particular quarter.

We typically bear the risk of loss and the cost of maintenance and repair on solar systems that are owned or leased by our fund investors.

We typically bear the risk of loss and are generally obligated to cover the cost of maintenance and repair on any solar systems that we sell or lease to our fund investors. At the time we sell or lease a solar system to a fund investor, we enter into a maintenance services agreement where we agree to operate and maintain the system for a fixed fee that is calculated to cover our future expected maintenance costs. If our solar systems require an above-average amount of repairs or if the cost of repairing systems were higher than our estimate, we would need to perform such repairs without additional compensation. If our solar systems, a majority of which are located in California, are damaged in the event of a natural disaster beyond our control, losses could be excluded, such as earthquake damage, or exceed insurance policy limits, and we could incur unforeseen costs that could harm our business and financial condition. We may also incur significant costs for taking other actions in preparation for, or in reaction to, such events. We purchase Property and Business Interruption insurance with industry standard coverage and limits approved by an investor’s third-party insurance advisors to hedge against such risk, but such coverage may not cover our losses.

 

33


 

Any unauthorized disclosure or theft of personal customer information we gather, store and use could harm our reputation and subject us to claims or litigation.

We receive, store and use personal information of our customers, including names, addresses, e-mail addresses, credit information and other housing and energy use information. Unauthorized disclosure of such personal information could harm our business, whether through breach of our systems by an unauthorized party, employee theft or misuse, or otherwise. If we were subject to an inadvertent disclosure of such personal information or if a third party were to gain unauthorized access to customer personal information in our possession, our operations could be seriously disrupted and we could be subject to claims or litigation arising from damages suffered by our customers. In addition, we could incur significant costs in complying with the multitude of federal, state and local laws regarding the unauthorized disclosure of personal customer information. Finally, any perceived or actual unauthorized disclosure of such information could harm our reputation, substantially impair our ability to attract and retain customers and have an adverse impact on our business.

Any failure to comply with laws and regulations relating to our interactions with current or prospective residential customers could result in negative publicity, claims, investigations, and litigation, and adversely affect our financial performance.

As the country’s largest residential solar installer, we rely on our ability to engage in transactions with residential customers. In doing so, we must comply with numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations that govern matters relating to our interactions with residential consumers, including those pertaining to privacy and data security, consumer financial and credit transactions, home improvement contracts, warranties and door-to-door solicitation. These laws and regulations change frequently and are interpreted by various federal, state and local regulatory bodies. Changes in these laws or regulations or their interpretation could dramatically affect how and where we conduct our business, acquire customers, and manage and use information we collect from and about current and prospective customers and the costs associated therewith.

Even though we may believe that we maintain effective compliance with all such laws and regulations, we may still be subject to claims, proceedings, litigation and investigations by private parties and regulatory authorities, and could be subject to substantial fines and negative publicity, each of which may materially and adversely affect our business and operations. For example, a putative class action was filed against us in November 2015 alleging violations of the federal Telephone Consumer Protection Act. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant expenses to comply with such laws and regulations, and increased regulation of matters relating to our interactions with residential consumers could require us to modify our operations and incur significant additional expenses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we are subject to federal, state and international laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personal information of our customers. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between one company and its subsidiaries. Several jurisdictions have passed new laws in this area, and other jurisdictions are considering imposing additional restrictions. These laws continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying with emerging and changing requirements may cause us to incur costs or require us to change our business practices. Any failure by us, our affiliates or other parties with whom we do business to comply with a posted privacy policies or with other federal, state or international privacy-related or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others, which could have a detrimental effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our stock price has been and may continue to be volatile, and the value of your investment could decline.

The trading price of our common stock has been volatile since our initial public offering. Since shares of our common stock were sold in our initial public offering in December 2012 at a price of $8.00 per share, the reported high and low sales prices of our common stock on The NASDAQ Stock Market has ranged from $9.20 to $88.35 per share, through February 9, 2016. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate widely in response to many risk factors listed in this section and others beyond our control, including:

 

·

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our industry, products or services, including the effects of tariffs and other anti-competitive actions;

 

·

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

·

actual or anticipated changes in expectations regarding our performance by investors or securities analysts;

 

·

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market;

 

34


 

 

·

volatility in the market price and trading volume of companies in our industry or companies that investors consider comparable; 

 

·

share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;

 

·

addition or loss of significant customers;

 

·

our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights;

 

·

sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders, including as a result of recent, proposed or new offerings and acquisitions;

 

·

litigation involving us, our industry or both;

 

·

major catastrophic events; and

 

·

general economic and market conditions and trends.

Further, in recent years the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In addition, the stock prices of many renewable energy companies have experienced wide fluctuations that have often been unrelated to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions, government shutdowns, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.

Our stock price could decline due to the large number of outstanding shares of our common stock eligible for future sale and issuance.

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. These sales could also make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate. Such sales may occur in connection with our acquisitions, such as our issuance of approximately 8.8 million shares in the aggregate for our acquisitions of Silevo, Zep Solar and certain assets of Paramount Solar. In connection with our acquisition of Silevo, we may issue additional common stock with an aggregate value of up to $150.0 million, subject to adjustments and as determined in connection with the merger agreement, upon the timely achievement of all earnout related milestones. In addition, holders of a substantial amount of our common stock are entitled to rights with respect to registration of these shares under the Securities Act pursuant to an investors’ rights agreement. If these holders of our common stock, by exercising their registration rights, sell a large number of shares, they could adversely affect the market price for our common stock. If we file a registration statement for the purposes of selling additional shares to raise capital and are required to include shares held by these holders pursuant to the exercise of their registration rights, our ability to raise capital may be impaired.

Insiders have substantial control over us, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

As of December 31, 2015, our directors and executive officers and their affiliates, in the aggregate, owned approximately 35% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, would be able to influence or control matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions or other extraordinary transactions. They may have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and that may be adverse to your interests. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might affect the market price of our common stock.

 

35


 

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and under Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our common stock by discouraging, delaying or preventing a change of control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may believe advantageous. These provisions include:

 

·

establishing a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

·

authorizing “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could issue to increase the number of outstanding shares to discourage a takeover attempt;

 

·

limiting the ability of stockholders to call a special stockholder meeting;

 

·

limiting the ability of stockholders to act by written consent;

 

·

authorizing the board of directors to make, alter or repeal our bylaws; and

 

·

establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock, to some extent, depends on the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If any of the analysts who cover us adversely change their recommendation regarding our stock, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who covers us were to cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our common stock. We intend to retain any earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the future. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our common stock if the market price of our common stock increases.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

 

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our corporate headquarters and executive offices are located in San Mateo, California, where we occupy approximately 68,025 square feet of office space under a lease that expires in December 2016, with a renewal option. We also maintain a regional headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as larger offices in San Francisco, San Rafael and Fremont, California.  In addition, we lease sales offices, warehouses and manufacturing facilities across the country and in Mexico and China. We also maintain sales and support offices in Ontario, Canada. We lease all of our facilities, and we do not own any real property. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current needs and that we will be able to lease suitable additional or alternative space on commercially reasonable terms if and when we need it.

 

 

 

36


 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

In July 2012, we, along with other companies in the solar energy industry, received a subpoena from the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of the Inspector General to deliver certain documents in our possession that were dated, created, revised or referred to after January 1, 2007 and that relate to our applications for U.S. Treasury grants or communications with certain other solar energy development companies or with certain firms that appraise solar energy property for U.S Treasury grant application purposes. The Inspector General and the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice are investigating the administration and implementation of the U.S Treasury grant program, including possible misrepresentations concerning the fair market value of the solar energy systems submitted by us in U.S. Treasury grant applications. If the Inspector General concludes that misrepresentations were made, the U.S. Department of Justice could decide to bring a civil action to recover amounts it believes were improperly paid to us. If the U.S. Department of Justice is successful in asserting this action, we could then be required to pay material damages and penalties for any funds received based on such misrepresentations, which, in turn, could require us to make indemnity payments to certain fund investors. We are unable to estimate the possible loss, if any, associated with this ongoing investigation.

On March 28, 2014, a purported stockholder class action was filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California against us and two of our officers. The complaint alleges claims for violations of the federal securities laws, and seeks unspecified compensatory damages and other relief on behalf of a purported class of purchasers of our securities from March 6, 2013 to March 18, 2014. On April 16, 2015, the District Court dismissed the complaint and allowed the plaintiffs to file an amended complaint in an attempt to remedy the defects in the original complaint. The plaintiffs filed their amended complaint, and we filed a renewed motion to dismiss on August 7, 2015. On January 5, 2016, the District Court dismissed the amended complaint and allowed the plaintiffs until February 15, 2016 to file a further amended complaint in an attempt to remedy the defects in the amended complaint. We believe that the claims are without merit and intends to defend ourselves vigorously. We are unable to estimate the possible loss, if any, associated with this lawsuit.

On June 5 and 11, 2014, stockholder derivative actions were filed in the Superior Court of California for the County of San Mateo, purportedly on behalf of us and against our board of directors, alleging that our board of directors breached their duties to us by failing to prevent the conduct alleged in the pending purported stockholder class action lawsuit. We and the individual board member defendants filed a motion to dismiss the complaint, which the Superior Court granted on December 17, 2015. The Superior Court allowed the plaintiffs until February 24, 2016 to file an amended complaint in an attempt to remedy the defects in the original complaint. The Superior Court scheduled a hearing on June 10, 2016 for any motion by our board of directors or us to dismiss the amended complaint. We will continue to review the claims asserted by the stockholders and are unable to estimate the possible loss, if any, associated with this lawsuit.

In June 2014, we along with Sunrun, Inc., or Sunrun, filed a lawsuit in the Superior Court of Arizona against the Arizona Department of Revenue, or DOR, challenging DOR’s interpretation of Arizona state law to impose property taxes on solar energy systems that are leased by customers. On June 1, 2015, the Superior Court issued an order rejecting the interpretation of the Arizona state law under which the DOR had sought to tax leased solar energy systems. In that same order, the Superior Court held that a separate Arizona statute, which provides that such systems are deemed to have no value for purposes of calculating property tax, violated certain provisions of the Arizona state constitution. Both the DOR and we have appealed the Superior Court’s ruling, and we will continue to vigorously pursue our claims.

On March 2, 2015, we filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona against the Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District and the Salt River Valley Water Users’ Association, or SRP, alleging that SRP’s imposition of distribution charges and demand charges on new solar energy customers in its territory violates state and federal antitrust laws. On June 23, 2015, SRP moved to dismiss the complaint. On October 27, 2015, the District Court denied SRP’s motion to dismiss in part and granted it in part. In particular, the District Court held that we may proceed on our antitrust claims against SRP to seek an injunction blocking SRP’s new charges and may proceed with claims for damages under state laws other than antitrust laws. Furthermore, the District Court held that we may not recover monetary damages on our antitrust theories and dismissed two of our antitrust claims while allowing the others to proceed. Discovery has commenced, and we intend to pursue our claims vigorously.

On September 18, 2015, a stockholder derivative action was filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, purportedly on behalf of us and against our board of directors, alleging that our board of directors breached their duties to us by approving stock-based compensation to the non-employee directors that the plaintiff claims is excessive compared to the compensation paid to directors of peer companies. We are reviewing the claim and are unable to estimate the possible loss, if any, associated with this lawsuit.

 

37


 

On September 21, 2015, we filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts against Seaboard Solar Operations LLC, or Seaboard, and its principal, Stuart Longman, alleging breaches of the various written contracts between us and Seaboard, fraud, conversion and unfair business practices. We sought a declaratory judgment that we own and have the right to develop the specified projects and of damages of approximately $16.0 million. In December 2015, we settled the lawsuit in exchange for $16.1 million to be paid by Seaboard over the course of 2016; upon making those payments, Seaboard will have the rights to the projects.

On November 6, 2015, a putative class action was filed against us in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. The complaint alleges that we made unlawful telephone marketing calls to the plaintiff and others, in violation of the federal Telephone Consumer Protection Act. The plaintiff seeks injunctive relief and statutory damages, on behalf of himself and a certified class. On January 25, 2016, we filed a motion to dismiss the complaint. We believe that the claims are without merit and intend to defend ourselves vigorously. We are unable to estimate the possible loss, if any, associated with this lawsuit.

From time to time, claims have been asserted, and may in the future be asserted, including claims from regulatory authorities related to labor practices and other matters. Such assertions arise in the normal course of our operations. The resolution of any such assertions or claims cannot be predicted with certainty. If an unfavorable ruling were to occur, there exists the possibility of a material adverse impact on our results of operations, prospects, cash flows, financial position and brand.

 

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

 

 

 

38


 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER REPURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, began trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on December 13, 2012, where its prices are quoted under the symbol “SCTY.”

Holders of Record

As of December 31, 2015, there were 233 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Price Range of Our Common Stock

The following table sets forth the reported high and low sales prices of our common stock for the indicated periods, as regularly quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market:

 

  

 

Year Ended

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

 

December 31, 2014

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

First Quarter

 

$

88.35

 

 

$

55.56

 

 

$

59.31

 

 

$

46.45

 

Second Quarter

 

$

72.10

 

 

$

45.79

 

 

$

63.79

 

 

$

50.00

 

Third Quarter

 

$

79.40

 

 

$

58.43

 

 

$

61.72

 

 

$

34.65

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

61.09

 

 

$

45.91

 

 

$

58.87

 

 

$

24.07

 

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions including compliance with covenants under our credit facilities and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

 

39


 

Stock Price Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any filing of SolarCity Corporation under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

This chart compares the cumulative total return on our common stock with that of the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Clean Edge U.S. Liquid Series Index, or NASDAQ CELS Index. The chart assumes $100 was invested on December 13, 2012 in the common stock of SolarCity Corporation, the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ CELS Index, and assumes the reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indexed Returns

 

 

Indexed Returns

 

 

Indexed Returns

 

 

 

Base Period

 

 

Period ended

 

 

Period ended

 

 

Period ended

 

Company/Index

 

12/13/2012

 

 

12/31/2013

 

 

12/31/2014

 

 

12/31/2015

 

SolarCity Corporation

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

481.93

 

 

$

453.60

 

 

$

432.74

 

NASDAQ Composite Index

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

139.58

 

 

$

158.28

 

 

$

167.35

 

NASDAQ Clean Edge U.S. Liquid Series Index

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

192.30

 

 

$

185.30

 

 

$

171.76

 

 

 

 

40


 

ITEM 6. SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

You should read the following selected consolidated financial data below in conjunction with Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the consolidated financial statements, the accompanying notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K. The selected consolidated financial data in this section are not intended to replace the consolidated financial statements and are qualified in their entirety by the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K.

The consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report on Form 10-K, which are stated on a basis consistent with our audited consolidated financial statements included herein. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in any future period.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2012

 

 

2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

 

Consolidated statement of operations data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating leases and solar energy systems incentives

 

$

293,543

 

 

$

173,636

 

 

$

82,856

 

 

$

46,098

 

 

$

23,145

 

Solar energy systems and component sales

 

 

106,076

 

 

 

81,395

 

 

 

80,981

 

 

 

80,810

 

 

 

36,406

 

Total revenue

 

 

399,619

 

 

 

255,031

 

 

 

163,837

 

 

 

126,908

 

 

 

59,551

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating leases and solar energy systems incentives

 

 

165,546

 

 

 

92,920

 

 

 

32,745

 

 

 

14,596

 

 

 

5,718

 

Solar energy systems and component sales

 

 

115,245

 

 

 

83,512

 

 

 

91,723

 

 

 

84,856

 

 

 

41,418

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

280,791

 

 

 

176,432

 

 

 

124,468

 

 

 

99,452

 

 

 

47,136

 

Gross profit

 

 

118,828

 

 

 

78,599

 

 

 

39,369

 

 

 

27,456

 

 

 

12,415

 

Net loss

 

 

(768,822

)

 

 

(375,230

)

 

 

(151,758

)

 

 

(113,726

)

 

 

(73,714

)

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable

   noncontrolling interests(1)

 

 

(710,492

)

 

 

(319,196

)

 

 

(95,968

)

 

 

(14,391

)

 

 

(117,230

)

Net (loss) income attributable to stockholders(1)

 

$

(58,330

)

 

$

(56,034

)

 

$

(55,790

)

 

$

(99,335

)

 

$

43,516

 

Net (loss) income per share attributable to common stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

(0.60

)

 

$

(0.60

)

 

$

(0.70

)

 

$

(7.68

)

 

$

0.82

 

Diluted

 

$

(0.60

)

 

$

(0.60

)

 

$

(0.70

)

 

$

(7.69

)

 

$

0.76

 

  

(1)

Under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required to present the impact of a hypothetical liquidation of our joint ventures on our consolidated statements of operations. For a more detailed discussion of this accounting treatment, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Components of Results of Operations—Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Stockholders.”

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2012

 

 

2011

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated balance sheet data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

382,544

 

 

$

504,383

 

 

$

577,080

 

 

$

160,080

 

 

$

50,471

 

Total current assets

 

$

902,138

 

 

$

997,616

 

 

$

785,924

 

 

$

313,938

 

 

$

241,522

 

Solar energy systems, leased and to be leased - net

 

$

4,375,553

 

 

$

2,796,796

 

 

$

1,682,521

 

 

$

984,121

 

 

$

535,609

 

Total assets

 

$

7,287,118

 

 

$

4,551,219

 

 

$

2,792,120

 

 

$

1,335,592

 

 

$

812,703

 

Total current liabilities

 

$

1,193,362

 

 

$

566,513

 

 

$

338,029

 

 

$

213,939

 

 

$

246,886

 

Long-term debt, net of current portion

 

$

1,006,595

 

 

$

282,789

 

 

$

231,504

 

 

$

76,864

 

 

$

14,111

 

Convertible senior notes, net of current portion

 

$

894,560

 

 

$

777,726

 

 

$

222,827

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Solar asset-backed notes, net of current portion

 

$

395,667

 

 

$

293,215

 

 

$

46,824

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

 

$

1,010,491

 

 

$

557,408

 

 

$

410,161

 

 

$

204,396

 

 

$

101,359

 

Financing obligation, net of current portion

 

$

68,940

 

 

$

73,379

 

 

$

78,505

 

 

$

140,639

 

 

$

61,685

 

Other liabilities and deferred credits

 

$

279,006

 

 

$

218,024

 

 

$

193,439

 

 

$

114,006

 

 

$

36,314

 

Redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries

 

$

320,935

 

 

$

186,788

 

 

$

44,709

 

 

$

12,827

 

 

$

22,308

 

Convertible redeemable preferred stock

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

125,722

 

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)

 

$

(316,680

)

 

$

745,642

 

 

$

617,598

 

 

$

183,601

 

 

$

(37,662

)

Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries

 

$

535,062

 

 

$

409,942

 

 

$

186,817

 

 

$

96,793

 

 

$

100,338

 

 

 

 

 

 

41


 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes to those statements included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results and timing of selected events may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those discussed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K.

Overview

We integrate the sales, engineering, manufacturing, installation, monitoring, maintenance and financing of our distributed solar energy systems. This allows us to offer long-term energy solutions to residential, commercial, government and other customers. We make it possible for our customers to buy renewable energy or solar energy systems from us for less than they currently pay for electricity from utilities with little to no up-front cost or down payment, as applicable. Our long-term contractual arrangements typically generate recurring customer payments, provide our customers with insight into their future electricity costs and minimize their exposure to rising retail electricity rates. We also offer energy-related products and services to our customers, such as energy storage solutions. To date, revenue attributable to our energy-related products and services has not been material.

We offer our customers the choice to either purchase and own solar energy systems or to purchase the energy that our solar energy systems produce through various contractual arrangements. These contractual arrangements include long-term leases and power purchase agreements. In both structures, we install our solar energy systems at our customer’s premises and charge the customer a monthly fee for the power that our system produces. In the lease structure, this monthly payment is fixed with a production guarantee. In the power purchase agreement structure, we charge customers a fee per kilowatt-hour, or kWh, based on the amount of electricity the solar energy system actually produces. The leases and power purchase agreements are typically for 20 years with a renewal option, and generally when there is no upfront prepayment, the specified monthly fees are subject to annual escalations.

Initially, we only offered our solar energy systems on an outright purchase basis. During 2008, we began offering leases and power purchase agreements. In the fourth quarter of 2014, we began offering MyPower. Under MyPower, we provide qualified residential customers with a 30-year loan to finance the purchase of a solar energy system. The interest rate on the loan is fixed at inception and ranges from 4.50% to 5.49% per annum, depending on the geographic market. The interest rates are reduced by 0.50% per annum for customers who elect to have their payments automatically withdrawn. The monthly loan repayments are variable based on the amount of electricity generated by the systems. The customers are eligible to receive a federal income tax credit equal to 30% of the value of the solar energy system, which the customers can, and in certain cases are contractually obligated to, use to pay down the loan principal, and lower future monthly loan payments. This in turn translates to a lower effective cost per kWh of electricity to these customers. Our ability to offer leases, power purchase agreements and the financing of systems under MyPower depends in part on our ability to monetize the resulting customer receivables and any related investment tax credits, or ITCs, accelerated tax depreciation and other incentives.

We compete mainly with the retail electricity rate charged by the utilities in the markets we serve, and our strategy is to price the energy and/or services we provide and payments under MyPower below that rate. As a result, the price our customers pay varies depending on the state where the customer is located and the local utility. The price we charge also depends on customer price sensitivity, the need to offer a compelling financial benefit and the price other solar energy companies charge in the region. Our commercial rates in a given region are also typically lower than our residential rates in that region because utilities’ commercial retail rates are generally lower than their residential retail rates.

We generally recognize revenue from solar energy systems sold to our customers on an outright purchase basis when we install the solar energy system and it passes inspection by the utility or the authority having jurisdiction. We recognize revenue from MyPower financed sales over the term of the loan contract as the customer pays the loan’s outstanding principal and interest. We account for our leases and power purchase agreements as operating leases. We recognize the revenue that these arrangements generate on a straight-line basis over the term for leases, and as we generate and deliver energy for power purchase agreements. We recognize revenue from our energy-related products and services when we complete the services or when we earn a referral fee. Substantially all of our revenue is attributable to customers located in the United States.

We monetize certain government incentives in the form of ITCs under lease pass-through structures by assigning the ITCs to investors in exchange for upfront cash payments. We record the amounts we receive from the investors for the ITCs as a liability, which is subsequently recognized as revenue as the five-year ITC recapture period expires.

 

42


 

The amount of operating lease revenue that we recognize in a given period is dependent in part on the amount of energy generated by solar energy systems under power purchase agreements and by solar energy systems with energy output performance based incentives, which is in turn dependent on the amount of sunlight received by these solar energy systems. Additionally, a portion of the revenue that we recognize in any given period for sales financed under MyPower is derived from the cash receipts from periodic customer billings. The periodic customer billings are based on the amount of electricity generated by these systems, which in turn is dependent in part on the amount of sunlight received by these systems. As a result, operating lease revenue and revenue from sales financed under MyPower are impacted by seasonally shorter daylight hours and inclement weather in winter months. As the relative percentage of our revenue attributable to power purchase agreements, performance-based incentives or financed sales under MyPower increases, this seasonality has and will continue to become more significant to our financial results.

Various state and local agencies offer incentive rebates for the installation and operation of solar energy systems. For solar energy systems we sell, we typically have the customer assign the incentive rebate to us. For outright sales, we record the incentive rebate as a component of proceeds from the solar energy system sale. For incentive rebates associated with solar energy systems under leases or power purchase agreements, we initially record the incentive rebate that is paid upfront as deferred revenue and recognize the deferred revenue as revenue over the term of the lease or power purchase agreement. For incentives that are paid based on the performance of the solar energy systems, we recognize revenue as the solar energy systems produce electricity.

Component materials, direct labor and third-party appliances comprise the substantial majority of the costs of our solar energy systems and energy-related products and services. Under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, the cost of revenue from our leases and power purchase agreements are primarily comprised of the depreciation of the cost of the solar energy systems, which are depreciated over their estimated useful lives of 30 years, reduced by amortization of U.S. Treasury grants income. The cost of revenue from our leases and power purchase agreements also include the amortization of initial direct costs, which generally include the incremental costs of contract administration, referral fees and sales commissions, which are amortized over the minimum contractual term of the lease or power purchase agreement, which is typically 20 years. The costs associated with sales financed under MyPower, with the exception of warranty costs, are initially deferred as other assets on the balance sheet and subsequently recognized on the statement of operations, in proportion to the reduction of the principal balance of the customer’s loan.

The estimated warranty costs associated with sales under MyPower are recognized as an expense upon the delivery of the solar energy systems, while any actual cash payments for these warranty costs would be made in future periods if and when component parts fail and then need to be repaired or replaced. We price our solar energy systems such that we will realize an overall gross profit on the systems over the 30-year term of the MyPower contracts. However, since the revenue associated with sales under MyPower is recognized over the term of the MyPower contracts, recognizing the estimated warranty costs as an expense upfront results in a gross loss being recognized at the inception of the MyPower contracts. As sales under MyPower continue to increase, we expect that the impact of recognizing the warranty expense upfront will continue to adversely affect our gross margins.

We have structured different types of financing funds to implement our asset monetization strategy. One such structure is a joint venture structure where we and our fund investors both contribute funds or assets into the joint venture. In accordance with GAAP, we recognize the impact of a hypothetical liquidation of these joint ventures on our consolidated statements of operations. Therefore, after we determine our consolidated net income (loss) for a given period, we allocate a portion of our consolidated net income (loss) to the fund investors in our joint ventures (referred to as the “noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests” in our consolidated financial statements) and allocate the remainder of the consolidated net income (loss) to our stockholders. These income or loss allocations, reflected on our consolidated statements of operations, can have a significant impact on our reported results of operations. For example, for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, our consolidated net loss was $768.8 million and $375.2 million, respectively. However, after applying the required allocations to arrive at the consolidated net loss attributable to our stockholders, the result was a loss of $58.3 million and $56.0 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. For a more detailed discussion of this accounting treatment, see “—Components of Results of Operations—Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Stockholders.”

We are in the process of making leasehold improvements to a manufacturing facility in Fremont, California, which we began leasing from a third party in 2014. The leasehold improvements include a 100.0-megawatt high-performance solar cell and module production line as well as normal tenant improvements. In the fourth quarter of 2015, we began limited domestic production of solar cells and modules at this facility, and will also be using the facility for our solar panel research and development activities.

 

43


 

In September 2014, one of our subsidiaries entered into a build-to-suit lease arrangement with the Research Foundation for the State University of New York, or the Foundation, for the construction of an approximately 1.0 million square-feet solar panel manufacturing facility with a capacity of 1.0 gigawatts on an approximately 88.2 acre site located in Buffalo, New York. Under the terms of the arrangement, which has been amended, the Foundation will construct the manufacturing facility and install certain utilities and other improvements, with participation by us as to the design and construction of the manufacturing facility, and acquire certain manufacturing equipment designated by us to be used in the manufacturing facility. The Foundation will cover (i) construction costs related to the manufacturing facility in an amount up to $350.0 million, (ii) the acquisition and commissioning of the manufacturing equipment in an amount up to $348.1 million and (iii) $51.9 million for additional specified scope costs, in cases (i) and (ii) only, subject to the maximum funding allocation from the State of New York, and we will be responsible for any construction and equipment costs in excess of such amounts. The Foundation will own the manufacturing facility and manufacturing equipment purchased by the Foundation. Following completion of the manufacturing facility, we will lease the manufacturing facility and the manufacturing equipment owned by the Foundation from the Foundation for an initial period of 10 years, with an option to renew, for $2 per year plus utilities.

Under the terms of the build-to-suit lease arrangement, we are required to achieve specific operational milestones during the initial term of the lease, which include employing a certain number of employees at the facility, within western New York and within the State of New York within specified time periods following the completion of the facility. We are also required to spend or incur approximately $5.0 billion in combined capital, operational expenses and other costs in the State of New York over the 10 years following the achievement of full production. On an annual basis during the initial lease term, as measured on each anniversary of the commissioning of the facility, if we fail to meet our specified investment and job creation obligations, then we would be obligated to pay a $41.2 million “program payment” to the Foundation for each year that we fail to meet these requirements. Furthermore, if the arrangement is terminated due to a material breach by us, then additional amounts might be payable by us.

In October 2014, we commenced issuing Solar Bonds to the general public, which are senior unsecured obligations that are structurally subordinate to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries. Solar Bonds have various terms and interest rates. We intend to continue to issue Solar Bonds periodically.

On August 7, 2015, we acquired all of the outstanding shares of Ilioss, a designer and marketer of commercial and industrial solar energy systems in Mexico. Historically, Ilioss subcontracted the installation of its solar energy systems and sold them to financing companies along with the related customer power purchase agreements. We have vertically integrated Ilioss’ operations, and expect to expand our product offerings throughout Mexico.

Financing Funds

Our lease and power purchase agreements in conjunction with the associated solar energy systems create ITCs, accelerated tax depreciation deductions, customer payments and other incentives. Our current financial strategy is to monetize these attributes or ‘assets’ to generate cash. Through this monetization process, we are able to share the economic benefits generated by the solar energy system with our customers by lowering the price they pay for energy. Historically, we have monetized the assets created by substantially all of our leases and power purchase agreements via funds we have formed with fund investors. Depending on the structure of the fund, we may contribute or sell solar energy systems to the fund and assign certain of the tax attributes and other incentives associated with the solar energy systems to the investors and in return we receive upfront cash payments from investors.

We also enter into arrangements that allow us to borrow against the future recurring customer payments under the solar system leases and power purchase agreements. Through the financing funds, we are able to retain the residual value in leases and the solar energy systems themselves. We use the cash received from the investors to cover our operating and capital costs including the variable and fixed costs associated with installing the related solar energy systems. Because these recurring customer payments are from individuals or commercial businesses with high credit scores, and because electricity is a necessity, our fund investors perceive these as high-quality assets with a relatively low loss rate. We invest any excess cash in the growth of our business.

Joint Ventures. Under joint venture structures, we and our fund investors contribute assets or cash into a joint venture. Then, the joint venture acquires solar energy systems from us and leases the solar energy systems to customers. Prior to the fund investor receiving its contractual rate of return or for a time period specified in the contractual arrangements, the fund investors receive substantially all of the value attributable to the long-term recurring customer payments, ITCs, accelerated tax depreciation and, in some cases, other incentives. After the fund investor receives its contractual rate of return or after the specified time period, we receive substantially all of the value attributable to the long-term recurring customer payments and the other incentives.

 

44


 

We have determined that we are the primary beneficiary in these joint venture structures. Accordingly, we consolidate the assets and liabilities and operating results of these joint ventures, including the solar energy systems and operating lease revenue, in our consolidated financial statements. We recognize the fund investors’ share of the net assets of the joint ventures as noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries or redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries in our consolidated balance sheets. We recognize the amounts that are contractually payable to these investors in each period as distributions to noncontrolling interests or redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries. Our consolidated statements of cash flows reflect cash received from these fund investors as proceeds from investments by noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries. Our consolidated statements of cash flows also reflect cash paid to these fund investors as distributions paid to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries. We reflect any unpaid distributions to these fund investors as distributions payable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries in our consolidated balance sheets.

Lease Pass-Through. Under lease pass-through structures, we lease solar energy systems to fund investors under a master lease agreement, and these investors in turn sublease the solar energy systems to customers. We receive all of the value attributable to the accelerated tax depreciation and some or all of the value attributable to the other incentives. We assign to the fund investors the value attributable to the ITCs, the right to receive U.S. Treasury Department grants, where applicable, and, for the duration of the master lease term, the long-term recurring customer payments. The investors typically make significant upfront cash payments that we classify and allocate between the right to the ITCs, where applicable, and the future customer lease payments and other benefits assigned to the investor, which are recorded as a lease pass-through financing obligation. After the master lease term expires, we receive the customer payments, if any. We record the solar energy systems on our consolidated balance sheets as a component of solar energy systems, leased and to be leased—net. We record the amounts allocated to the ITCs as deferred revenue on our consolidated balance sheets as the associated solar energy systems are placed in service. We then recognize the deferred revenue in our consolidated statements of operations as revenue from operating leases and solar energy systems incentives, by reducing the deferred revenue balance at each reporting date as the five-year recapture period expires. We record the balance of the amounts received from fund investors as a financing obligation on our consolidated balance sheets and subsequently reduce the obligation by the amounts received by the fund investors from U.S. Treasury Department grants, where applicable, customer payments and the associated incentive rebates. We in turn recognize the incentive rebates and customer payments as revenue over the customer lease term and amortize U.S. Treasury Department grants as a reduction to depreciation of the associated solar energy systems over the estimated life of these systems.

Sale-Leaseback.  Under sale-leaseback structures, we generate cash through the sale of solar energy systems to fund investors, and we then lease these systems back from the investors and sublease them to our customers. For the duration of the lease term, we may, for some of the structures, receive the value attributable to the incentives and the long-term recurring customer payments, and we make leaseback payments to the fund investors. The fund investors receive the customer payments after the lease term. They also receive the value attributable to the ITCs, accelerated depreciation and other incentives. At the end of the lease term, we have the option to purchase the solar energy systems from the fund investors at the greater of the fair value or the predetermined agreed upon value. Typically, our customers make monthly lease payments that we recognize as revenue over the term of the subleases on a straight-line basis. Depending on the design, size and construction of the individual systems and the leaseback terms, we may recognize a portion of the revenue from the sale of the systems or we may treat the cash received from the sale as financing received from the fund investors and reflect the cash received as a financing obligation on our consolidated balance sheets.

Securitization.  Under securitization arrangements, we pool and transfer qualifying solar energy systems and the associated customer contracts or our interests in specified financing funds into a special purpose entity, or SPE, and issue notes backed by these solar assets to investors. The SPE is wholly owned by us and is consolidated in our consolidated financial statements. Accordingly, we do not recognize a gain or loss on transfer of these assets. The notes bear interest at a rate determined on the issuance of the notes. The cash flows generated by the assets in the SPEs are used to service the principal and interest payments of the notes and meet the SPE’s expenses, and any remaining cash is distributed to us. We recognize the revenue earned from the associated customer contracts in our consolidated financial statements. The assets and cash flows generated by the SPE are not available to our other creditors and the creditors of the SPE, including the note holders, have no recourse to our other assets.

Key Operating Metrics

We regularly review a number of metrics, including the following key operating metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions.

 

45


 

Customers

We track the number of residential, commercial, government and other customers where we have installed or contracted to install a solar energy system, or performed or contracted to perform an energy-related consultation or other energy efficiency services. We believe that the relationship we establish with building owners, together with the energy-related information we obtain about the buildings, position us to provide the owners with additional solutions to further lower their energy costs. We track the cumulative number of customers as of the end of a given period as an indicator of our historical growth and as an indicator of our rate of expected growth from period to period.

The following table sets forth our cumulative number of customers as of the dates presented:

 

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

 

December 31, 2014

 

Cumulative customers

 

 

331,256

 

 

 

189,657

 

As of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, we had installed solar energy systems for 232,710 customers and 124,021 customers, respectively.

Energy Contracts

We define an energy contract as a residential, commercial or government lease, power purchase agreement or MyPower contract pursuant to which consumers use or will use energy generated by a solar energy system that we have installed or have been contracted to install. For landlord-tenant structures in which we contract with the landlord or development company, we include each residence as an individual contract. For commercial customers with multiple locations, each location is deemed a contract if we maintain a separate contract for that location. We track the cumulative number of energy contracts as of the end of a given period as an indicator of our historical growth and as an indicator of our rate of growth from period to period.

The following table sets forth our cumulative number of energy contracts as of the dates presented:

 

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

 

December 31, 2014

 

Cumulative energy contracts

 

 

322,897

 

 

 

177,455

 

Megawatts Deployed and Megawatts Installed

We track megawatts deployed, or the megawatt production capacity of our solar energy systems that have had all required building department inspections completed during the applicable period. This metric includes solar energy systems deployed under energy contracts, as well as solar energy system direct sales. Because the size of our solar energy systems varies greatly, we believe that tracking the megawatt production capacity of deployed systems is an indicator of our growth rate and cost efficiency of our solar energy system business. We track the megawatts deployed in a given period as an indicator of asset growth and efficiency of the scale of our operations in the period. We track cumulative megawatts deployed as of the end of a given period as an indicator of our historical growth and our future opportunity to provide customers with additional solutions to further lower their energy costs.

The following table sets forth the megawatt production capacity of solar energy systems that we have deployed during the periods presented and the cumulative megawatts deployed as of the end of each period presented:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Megawatts deployed

 

 

778

 

 

 

502

 

 

 

280

 

Cumulative megawatts deployed

 

 

1,847

 

 

 

1,069

 

 

 

567

 

 

46


 

In addition, we track megawatts installed, or the megawatt production capacity of solar energy systems for which (i) all solar panels, inverters, mounting and racking hardware and system wiring have been installed, (ii) the system inverter is connected and a successful direct current string test has been completed confirming the production capacity of the system and (iii) the system is capable of being grid connected (including pending a utility disconnect procedure), in each case, as of the latest of which criteria is completed during the applicable period. This metric includes solar energy systems installed under energy contracts, as well as solar energy system direct sales. The following table sets forth the megawatt production capacity of solar energy systems that we have installed during the periods presented and the cumulative megawatts installed as of the end of each period presented:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Megawatts installed

 

 

870

 

 

 

503

 

 

 

285

 

Cumulative megawatts installed

 

 

1,945

 

 

 

1,075

 

 

 

572

 

 

Though we have historically reported nominal contracted payments as a representation of the growth in our operations and the value of our energy contracts, we have decided not to report our undeployed backlog of contracts as a value in this manner and will no longer be reporting this amount.

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

Operating leases and solar energy systems incentives. We classify and account for our leases and power purchase agreements as operating leases. We consider the proceeds from solar energy system incentives offered by certain state and local governments to form part of the proceeds from our operating leases. We recognize revenue from our operating leases over the operating lease term either on a straight-line basis over the lease term for lease arrangements or as we generate and sell energy to customers under power purchase agreements. We typically bundle and charge for remote monitoring services as part of the lease or power purchase agreement and recognize the allocated amount as revenue over the term of the monitoring service. The term of our leases and power purchase agreements ranges between 10 and 20 years.

Solar energy systems and components sales. Solar energy systems and components sales is comprised of revenue from the outright sale of solar energy systems directly to cash paying customers, revenue generated from long-term solar energy system sales contracts, revenue from solar energy systems financed under MyPower contracts, revenue generated from fulfillment of orders of Zep Solar and Silevo products that were outstanding on the acquisitions of Zep Solar and Silevo and revenue attributable to our energy-related products and services. We generally recognize revenue from solar energy systems sold outright to our customers when we install the solar energy system and it passes inspection by the utility or the authority having jurisdiction. We allocate a portion of the proceeds from the sale of the system to the remote monitoring service or maintenance service if applicable and recognize the allocated amount (based on relative selling prices) as revenue over the contractual service term. We recognize revenue generated from long-term solar energy system sales contracts on a percentage-of-completion basis, based on the ratio of labor costs incurred to date to total project labor costs. We recognize revenue from solar energy systems financed under MyPower over the 30-year term of the contract as the customer pays the loan’s principal and interest. We generally recognize revenue from sales of Zep Solar or Silevo components upon delivery to the third-party customer. Currently, we are internally consuming the entire output of Zep Solar products in solar energy systems installations for our customers. We recognize revenue from our energy-related products and services when we complete the services or the customer referral.

During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, less than 10% of our solar energy system installations were cash sales, as measured by system capacities. However, because of our revenue recognition policy, these sales represented 19% and 32%, respectively, of our total revenue for those periods. We expect installations utilizing leases and power purchase agreements to continue to represent a significant portion of our installed systems. We also expect financed sales to grow and form a significant portion of our future installations. As a result, the number of systems sold outright and delivered in a given period has a disproportionate effect on the total revenue reported for that period.

 

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Cost of Revenue, Gross Profit and Gross Profit Margin

Operating Leases and Solar Energy Systems Incentives Cost of Revenue. Operating leases and solar energy systems incentives cost of revenue is primarily comprised of depreciation of the cost of leased solar energy systems reduced by amortization of U.S. Treasury grants income, maintenance costs associated with those systems and amortization of initial direct costs associated with those systems. Initial direct costs include allocated incremental contract administration costs, sales commissions and customer acquisition referral fees from the origination of solar energy systems leased to customers. These contract administration costs include incremental personnel costs, such as salary, bonus, employee benefit costs and stock-based compensation costs. Operating leases and solar energy systems incentives cost of revenue also includes direct and allocated costs associated with monitoring services for these systems.

Solar Energy Systems and Components Sales Cost of Revenue. The substantial majority of solar energy systems and components sales cost of revenue consists of the costs of solar energy systems components and personnel costs associated with system installations or manufacture of components. Cost of revenue associated with solar energy systems financed under MyPower is comprised of a portion of the cost of the systems, which is generally recognized in proportion to the revenue recognized, and the estimated warranty costs associated with the systems, which are fully recognized upon the delivery of the systems and result in a gross loss being recognized upon the delivery of the systems. We acquire the significant component parts of the solar energy systems directly from foreign and domestic manufacturers or distributors. Following the acquisition of Zep Solar, we produce, through contract manufacturers, mounting solutions for photovoltaic panels, which are components of the solar energy systems. In the fourth quarter of 2015, following the acquisition of Silevo, we began limited domestic production of solar cells and modules for use in our solar energy systems installations. We primarily consume both Zep Solar and Silevo products.

Solar energy systems and components sales cost of revenue also includes solar energy system installation costs, project-specific engineering and design costs, estimated warranty costs, freight charges, allocated corporate overhead costs such as facilities costs, vehicle depreciation costs and personnel costs associated with supply chain, logistics, operations management, safety and quality control. Personnel costs include salary, bonus, employee benefit costs and stock-based compensation costs. Our employees install our residential solar energy systems, and our project managers and construction managers oversee the subcontractors that install our commercial systems. To a lesser extent, solar energy systems and components sales cost of revenue also includes personnel costs associated with performing our energy-related products and services and related materials.

We allocate to solar energy systems and components sales cost of revenue certain corporate overhead costs that include rental and operating costs for our corporate facilities, information technology costs, travel expenses and certain professional services to cost of solar energy systems, work in process, cost of sales, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses using an appropriate allocation basis.

Sales and Marketing Expenses

Sales and marketing expenses include personnel costs such as salaries, benefits, bonuses, sales commissions and stock-based compensation as well as advertising, promotional and other marketing related expenses. Sales and marketing expenses also include certain customer referral fees that are not a component of initial direct costs, allocated corporate overhead costs related to facilities and information technology, travel and professional services. Initial direct costs from the origination of solar energy systems leased to customers (which include the incremental cost of contract administration, referral fees and sales commissions) are capitalized as an element of solar energy systems, leased and to be leased, and subsequently amortized over the term of the related lease or power purchase agreement as a component of operating leases and solar energy systems incentives cost of revenue. We expect sales and marketing costs to increase in future periods for us to meet our installation and deployment targets.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses include personnel costs such as salaries, bonuses and stock-based compensation and professional fees related to legal, human resources, accounting and structured finance services. General and administrative expenses also include allocated corporate overhead costs related to facilities, information technology, asset management, travel and professional services. We anticipate that we will continue to incur additional administrative headcount costs to support the growth in our business and our financing fund arrangements.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses include personnel costs such as salaries, benefits, bonuses and stock-based compensation. Research and development expenses also include allocated corporate overhead costs related to facilities and information technology, travel and professional services. We expect research and development expenses to increase significantly in future periods as we continue to grow our research and development group headcount and undertake more research projects.

 

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Interest Income and Expense

Interest income and expense primarily consist of the interest charges associated with our revolving credit facilities, long-term debt facilities, solar asset-backed notes, convertible notes, Solar Bonds, financing obligations and capital lease obligations. Our secured revolving credit facilities, certain of our long-term debt facilities and certain of our Solar Bonds are subject to variable interest rates. The interest rates charged on our solar asset-backed notes, our convertible notes and certain of our Solar Bonds are fixed at inception. The interest rates charged on our financing obligations are fixed at the inception of the related transaction based on the incremental borrowing rate in effect on such date or the effective interest rate in the arrangement giving rise to the obligation. The interest rates charged on our capital lease obligations are fixed at the inception of the related transaction based on the incremental borrowing rate in effect on such date. Interest income and expense also include the amortization of any debt discounts, partially offset by a nominal amount of interest income generated from our cash holdings in interest-bearing accounts.

Other Income and Expenses

Our other income and expenses consisted principally of franchise taxes, losses on the extinguishment of long-term debt, the change in fair value of interest rate swaps and accretion on the contingent consideration related to the Silevo acquisition. We will continue to accrete the contingent consideration until it is settled or determined to be not payable.

Provision for Income Taxes

We are subject to taxation mainly in the United States, Puerto Rico, China, United Kingdom, Mexico and Canada. We conduct our business primarily in the United States.

Our effective tax rates differ from the statutory rate primarily due to the valuation allowance on our deferred taxes, state taxes, foreign taxes, intercompany and joint venture transactions and nondeductible stock-based compensation. Our current tax expense is primarily comprised of the amortization of prepaid tax expense arising from sales of assets to joint venture funds included in our consolidated financial statements and foreign income taxes. In the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, as a result of the acquisitions of Silevo and Zep Solar, for which a significant amount of the purchase price allocated to intangible assets had no tax basis, we recorded a net long-term deferred tax liability, which subsequently triggered the release of     $27.3 million and $24.8 million, respectively, of the valuation allowance on our deferred tax asset as a benefit to income taxes.

As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, we had a net deferred tax asset of $367.8 million and $111.2 million, respectively     . During these periods, we maintained a valuation allowance against the net deferred tax asset. As of December 31, 2015, as a result of increased sales to the joint venture funds and increased sales under the MyPower program, we had utilized all available net operating loss carryovers and investment tax credits to reduce our current tax liability, and we had a remaining current tax liability of $43.3 million for Federal, state and foreign jurisdictions. We expect to have a higher current tax liability in future periods after utilizing all available net operating loss carryovers and investment tax credits in the current period.

Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Stockholders

We determine the net income (loss) attributable to stockholders by deducting from net income (loss) in a period the net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests. The net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests represents the joint venture fund investors’ allocable share in the results of the joint venture funds and three investors’ allocable share in the results of a limited partnership operated by one of our acquired subsidiaries in China. We have determined that the provisions in the contractual arrangements represent substantive profit sharing arrangements. We have further determined that the appropriate methodology for calculating the noncontrolling interest and redeemable noncontrolling interests balances that reflects the substantive profit sharing arrangements is a balance sheet approach using the hypothetical liquidation at book value method, or HLBV method, for the joint venture funds. We therefore use the HLBV method to determine the share of the results of the joint venture funds attributable to the joint venture fund investors, which we record in our consolidated balance sheets as noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries. The HLBV method determines the joint venture fund investors’ allocable share of the results of the joint venture funds by calculating the net change in the joint venture fund investors’ share in the consolidated net assets of the joint venture funds at the beginning and end of the period after adjusting for any transactions between the joint venture funds and the joint venture fund investors, such as capital contributions or cash distributions. However, in all cases, the redeemable noncontrolling interests balance is at least equal to the redemption amount.

 

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in conformity with GAAP. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates. Our future consolidated financial statements will be affected to the extent that our actual results differ materially from these estimates.

We believe that the estimates and assumptions regarding the selling price of undelivered elements for revenue recognition purposes, the collectability of accounts and rebates receivable, the valuation of inventories, the labor costs for long-term contracts used as a basis for determining the percentage of completion for such contracts, the fair values and residual values of solar energy systems subject to leases, the accounting for business combinations, the fair values and useful lives of acquired tangible and intangible assets, the fair value of debt assumed under business combinations, the fair value of contingent consideration payable under business combinations, the fair value of short-term investments, the useful lives of solar energy systems, property, plant and equipment, the determination of accrued warranty, the determination of accrued liability for solar energy system performance guarantees, the determination of lease pass-through financing obligations, the discount rates used to determine the fair values of ITCs, the valuation of stock-based compensation, the determination of valuation allowances associated with deferred tax assets, asset impairment, the valuation of build-to-suit lease assets, the fair value of interest rate swaps and other items have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements. Therefore, we consider these to be our critical accounting policies and estimates. For further information on all of our significant policies, see Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Procedures, to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K.

Principles of Consolidation

Our consolidated financial statements reflect our accounts and operations and those of our subsidiaries in which we have a controlling financial interest. In accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 810, Consolidation, we consolidate any variable interest entity, or VIE, of which we are the primary beneficiary. We form VIEs with our financing fund investors in the ordinary course of business in order to facilitate the funding and monetization of certain attributes associated with our solar energy systems. The typical condition for a controlling financial interest ownership is holding a majority of the voting interests of an entity; however, a controlling financial interest may also exist in entities, such as VIEs, through arrangements that do not involve controlling voting interests. ASC 810 requires a variable interest holder to consolidate a VIE if that party has the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. This holder is considered the primary beneficiary. We do not consolidate a VIE in which we have a majority ownership interest when we are not considered the primary beneficiary. We have determined that we are the primary beneficiary of a number of our VIEs, and accordingly, we consolidate the assets and liabilities of such VIEs. We evaluate our relationships with our VIEs on an ongoing basis to ensure that we continue to be the primary beneficiary. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

Revenue Recognition

Our customers purchase solar energy systems from us under fixed-price contracts or lease our solar energy systems that also include remote monitoring services. A residential customer that purchases a solar energy system has the option to pay the full purchase price for the system at the time of purchase or finance the purchase through a 30-year loan from our wholly owned subsidiary under the MyPower program that we launched in the fourth quarter of 2014. We can also earn incentives that have been assigned to us by our customers, where available from utility companies and state and local governments.

 

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Solar Energy Systems and Components Sales

For solar energy systems and components sales wherein customers pay the full purchase price upon delivery of the system, we recognize revenue, net of any applicable governmental sales taxes, in accordance with ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition—Multiple-Element Arrangements, and ASC 605-10-S99, Revenue Recognition—Overall—SEC Materials. Revenue is recognized when (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, (3) the sales price is fixed or determinable and (4) collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. Components comprise of photovoltaic panels and solar energy system mounting hardware. In instances where there are multiple deliverables in a single arrangement, we allocate the arrangement consideration to the various elements in the arrangement based on the relative selling price method. We recognize revenue when we install a solar energy system and it passes inspection by the utility or the authority having jurisdiction, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Costs incurred on residential installations before the solar energy systems are completed are included in inventories as work in progress in our consolidated balance sheets.

We recognize revenue for solar energy systems constructed for certain commercial customers according to ASC 605-35, Revenue Recognition—Construction-Type and Production Type Contracts. Revenue is recognized on a percentage-of-completion basis, based on the ratio of labor costs incurred to date to total projected labor costs. Provisions are made for the full amount of any anticipated losses on a contract-by-contract basis. Costs in excess of billings are recorded where costs recognized are in excess of amounts billed to customers of purchased commercial solar energy systems.

For solar energy systems sold under a MyPower contract, we have determined that the arrangement consideration is not currently fixed or determinable. In making this determination, we considered that (i) the MyPower arrangement is unique and we do not have company-specific or market history for similar financing arrangements with similar asset classes over an extended term; (ii) customer preferences and satisfaction during the life of these long-term contracts, including as a result of technological advances in solar energy systems over time, may change, and we may be incented to offer future inducements or concessions to ensure customers remain satisfied during the life of these long-term contracts; and (iii) possible future decreases in the retail prices of electricity from utilities or from other renewable energy sources that may make the purchase of the solar energy systems less economically attractive and may cause us to amend the terms of our contracts to ensure continued performance and to remain competitive. Accordingly, we initially defer the revenue associated with the sale of a solar energy system under a MyPower contract when we deliver a system that has passed inspection by the utility or the authority having jurisdiction. In instances where there are multiple deliverables in a single MyPower contract, we allocate the arrangement consideration to the various elements in the contract based on the relative selling price method. We subsequently recognize revenue for the system over the term of the contract as cash payments are received for the loan’s outstanding principal and interest. The deferred revenue is included in our consolidated balance sheets under current portion of deferred revenue for the portion expected to be recognized as revenue in the next 12 months, and the non-current portion is included under deferred revenue, net of current portion. We record a note receivable when the customer secures the loan from our wholly owned subsidiary to finance the purchase of the solar energy system.

The costs associated with solar energy systems sold under MyPower contracts, including the costs of acquisition of system components, personnel costs associated with system installations and costs to originate the contracts such as sales commissions, referral fees and some incremental contract administration costs, are initially capitalized as deferred costs. Subsequently, these costs are recognized as a component of cost of revenue from solar energy systems and components sales for the costs associated with system components and installations, or as a component of operating expenses for costs associated with contract origination, generally in proportion to the reduction of the MyPower loans’ outstanding principal over the 30-year term. The deferred costs are included in our consolidated balance sheets under prepaid expenses and other current assets for the portion expected to be recognized in our consolidated statements of operations in the next 12 months, and the non-current portion is included as a component of other assets. However, the estimated warranty costs associated with the systems are fully expensed upon the delivery of the systems and result in a gross loss being recognized upon the delivery of the systems.

Operating Leases and Power Purchase Agreements

We are the lessor under lease agreements for solar energy systems, which are accounted for as operating leases in accordance with ASC 840, Leases. We record operating lease revenue from minimum lease payments, including upfront rebates and incentives earned from such systems, on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease term, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met. For incentives that are earned based on the amount of electricity generated by the system, we record revenue as the amounts are earned. The difference between the payments received and the revenue recognized is recorded as deferred revenue on the consolidated balance sheet.

For solar energy systems where customers purchase electricity from us under power purchase agreements, we have determined that these agreements should be accounted for, in substance, as operating leases pursuant to ASC 840. We recognize revenue based upon the amount of electricity delivered at rates specified under the contracts, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.

 

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We capitalize initial direct costs from the origination of solar energy systems leased to customers (the incremental cost of contract administration, referral fees and sales commissions) as an element of solar energy systems, leased and to be leased – net, and subsequently amortize these costs over the term of the related lease or power purchase agreement, which generally ranges from 10 to 20 years.

Remote Monitoring Services

We provide solar energy system remote monitoring services, which are generally bundled with both sales and leases of solar energy systems. We allocate revenue between remote monitoring services and the other elements in a bundled sale of a solar energy system using the relative selling price method. The selling prices used in the allocation are determined by reference to the prices charged by third-parties for similar services and products on a standalone basis. For remote monitoring services bundled with a sale of a solar energy system, we recognize the revenue allocated to remote monitoring services over the term specified in the associated contract or over the warranty period of the solar energy system if the contract does not specify the term. For remote monitoring services bundled with a lease of a solar energy system, we recognize the revenue allocated to remote monitoring services on a straight-line basis over the lease term. To date, remote monitoring services revenue has not been material and is included in our consolidated statements of operations under both operating leases and solar energy systems incentives revenue, when remote monitoring services are bundled with leases of solar energy systems, and solar energy systems and components sales revenue, when remote monitoring services are bundled with sales of solar energy systems.

Sale-Leaseback

We are a party to master lease agreements that provide for the sale of solar energy systems to third-parties and the simultaneous leaseback of the systems, which we then sublease to our customers. In sale-leaseback arrangements, we first determine whether the solar energy system under the sale-leaseback arrangement is “integral equipment.” A solar energy system is determined to be integral equipment when the cost to remove the system from its existing location, including the shipping and reinstallation costs of the solar energy system at the new site, including any diminution in fair value, exceeds 10% of the fair value of the solar energy system at the time of its original installation. When the leaseback arrangements expire, we have the option to purchase the solar energy system, and in most cases, the lessor has the option to sell the system back to us, though in some instances, the lessor can only sell the system back to us prior to expiration of the arrangement.

For solar energy systems that we have determined to be integral equipment, we have concluded that these rights create a continuing involvement. Therefore, we use the financing method to account for the sale-leaseback of such solar energy systems. Under the financing method, we do not recognize as revenue any of the sale proceeds received from the lessor that contractually constitutes a payment to acquire the solar energy system. Instead, we treat any such sale proceeds received as financing capital to install and deliver the solar energy system and, accordingly, record the proceeds as a sale-leaseback financing obligation in our consolidated balance sheets. We allocate the leaseback payments made to the lessor between interest expense and a reduction to the sale-leaseback financing obligation. Interest on the financing obligation is calculated using our incremental borrowing rate at the inception of the arrangement on the outstanding financing obligation. We determine our incremental borrowing rate by reference to the interest rates that we would obtain in the financial markets to borrow amounts equal to the sale-leaseback financing obligation over a term similar to the master lease term.

For solar energy systems that we have determined not to be integral equipment, we determine if the leaseback is classified as a capital lease or an operating lease. For leasebacks classified as capital leases, we initially record a capital lease asset and capital lease obligation in our consolidated balance sheet equal to the lower of the present value of our future minimum leaseback payments or the fair value of the solar energy system. For capital leasebacks, we do not recognize any revenue but defer the gross profit comprising of the net of the revenue and the associated cost of sale. For leasebacks classified as operating leases, we recognize a portion of the revenue and the associated cost of sale and defer the portion of revenue and cost of sale that represents the gross profit that is equal to the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the master leaseback term. For both capital and operating leasebacks, we record the deferred gross profit in our consolidated balance sheet as deferred income and amortize the deferred income over the leaseback term as a reduction to the leaseback rental expense included in operating leases and solar energy systems incentives cost of revenue in our consolidated statement of operations.

 

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Solar Energy Systems, Leased and To Be Leased

We are the operating lessor of the solar energy systems under leases that qualify as operating leases. We account for the leases in accordance with ASC 840. To determine lease classification, we evaluate lease terms to determine whether there is a transfer of ownership or bargain purchase option at the end of the lease, whether the lease term is greater than 75% of the useful life, or whether the present value of minimum lease payments exceed 90% of the fair value at lease inception. We utilize periodic appraisals to estimate useful life and fair values at lease inception, and residual values at lease termination. Solar energy systems are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation.

Depreciation and amortization is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets as follows:

 

 

 

Useful Lives

Solar energy systems leased to customers

 

30 years

Initial direct costs related to customer solar energy

   system lease acquisition costs

 

Lease term

(10 to 20 years)

Solar energy systems held for lease to customers are installed systems pending interconnection with the respective utility companies and will be depreciated as solar energy systems leased to customers when the respective systems have been interconnected and placed in service.

Solar energy systems under construction represents systems that are under installation, which will be depreciated as solar energy systems leased to customers when the respective systems are completed, interconnected and subsequently leased to customers.

Initial direct costs related to customer solar energy system lease acquisition costs are capitalized and amortized over the term of the related customer lease agreements.

Presentation of Cash Flows Associated with Solar Energy Systems

We classify cash flows associated with solar energy systems in accordance with ASC 230, Statement of Cash Flows. We determine the appropriate classification of cash payments related to solar energy systems depending on the activity that is likely to be the predominant source of cash flows for the item being paid for. Accordingly, we present payments made in a period for costs incurred to install solar energy systems that will be leased to customers, including the payments for cost of the inventory that is utilized in such systems, as investing activities in our consolidated statement of cash flows. Payments made for inventory that will be utilized for solar energy systems that will be sold to customers are presented as cash flows from operations in our consolidated statement of cash flows. We do not track payments for component parts at the individual component part level as they are not unique and can be used in either leased solar energy systems or solar energy systems that are sold to customers. Accordingly, we treat costs of raw materials transferred to solar energy systems to be leased as if they were paid in the period they are transferred to the systems.

Warranties

We generally provide a warranty on the installation and components of the solar energy systems we sell, including sales under MyPower contracts, for periods typically between 10 to 30 years. The manufacturer’s warranty on the solar energy systems’ components, which is typically passed-through to customers, ranges from one to 25 years. However, for the solar energy systems under lease contracts or power purchase agreements, we do not accrue a warranty liability because those systems are owned by subsidiaries that we consolidate. Instead, any repair costs on those systems are expensed when they are incurred as a component of operating leases and solar energy systems incentives cost of revenue.

Solar Energy Systems Performance Guarantees

We guarantee certain specified minimum solar energy production output for certain systems leased or sold to customers generally for a term of up to 30 years. We monitor the solar energy systems to ensure that these outputs are being achieved. We evaluate if any amounts are due to our customers and make any payments periodically as specified in the customer contracts. If we determine that the guaranteed minimum solar energy production output has not been achieved, then we record a liability for the estimated amounts payable as a component of accrued and other current liabilities. Since the actual solar energy production output is impacted by seasonality, this liability is also affected by seasonality.

 

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Deferred U.S. Treasury Grants Income

We are eligible for U.S. Treasury grants received or receivable on eligible property as defined under Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, as amended by the Tax Relief Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization and Job Creation Act of December 2010, which includes solar energy system installations, upon approval by the U.S. Treasury Department. However, to be eligible for U.S. Treasury grants, a solar energy system must have commenced construction in 2011 either physically or through the incurrence of sufficient project costs. We submit applications for grants receivable from the U.S. Treasury Department related to eligible property based on 30% of the tax basis of the solar energy systems as supported by independently appraised fair market values of the systems or guideline system values that have been posted by the U.S. Treasury Department on its website. To determine the fair market value of the systems, an independent appraiser considers various factors such as the cost of producing the systems, the estimated price that could be obtained in the market from the sale of the systems and the present value of the economic benefits expected to be generated by the systems. We then present our appraised fair market value to the U.S. Treasury Department when we apply for grants on our solar energy systems. In a number of cases, the U.S. Treasury Department has determined that grants should be paid based on a lower value for the systems and has in such instances posted guideline system values on its website that should be used in the grant applications.

We initially record the grants receivable for leased solar energy systems as deferred income at the amounts that have been approved for payment by the U.S. Treasury Department and then amortize them on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related solar energy systems of 30 years. The amortization of the deferred income is recorded as a reduction to depreciation expense, which is a component of the cost of revenue of operating leases and solar energy systems incentives in our consolidated statements of operations. A catch-up adjustment is recorded in the period in which the grant is approved by the U.S. Treasury Department or received by lease pass-through investors to recognize the portion of the grant that matches proportionally the amortization for the period between the date of placement in service of the solar energy systems and approval by the U.S. Treasury Department or receipt by lease pass-through investors of the associated grant, in the case of lease pass-through fund arrangements. Some of our fund agreements obligate us to reimburse the fund investors based upon the difference between their anticipated benefit from U.S. Treasury grants at the formation of the funds and the benefit they receive from the amounts paid by the U.S. Treasury Department. For the joint venture financing funds where we are contractually obligated to reimburse investors for reductions in anticipated grants receivable, we record amounts we expect to pay the investors as distributions payable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in our consolidated balance sheets, and any impact to our consolidated statements of operations, which is determined using the HLBV method, is reflected in the net income or loss attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests line item. For sale-leaseback financing funds where we are contractually obligated to reimburse investors for reductions in anticipated grants receivable, we record amounts we expect to pay the investors under accrued and other current liabilities and reduce the deferred gain on sale-leaseback transactions included within other liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets, with no impact on our consolidated statements of operations. For solar energy systems under lease pass-through fund arrangements, all amounts received from the investors are recorded in our consolidated balance sheets as a lease pass-through financing obligation, and the amounts we expect to reimburse investors for reductions in anticipated grants receivable would reduce the lease pass-through financing obligation with no impact on our consolidated statements of operations. We reduce the lease pass-through financing obligation and record deferred income for the U.S. Treasury grants that are paid directly to the investors upon receipt of the grants by the investors.

Deferred ITCs Revenue

Our solar energy systems are eligible for ITCs that accrue to eligible property under the IRC. Under Section 50(d)(5) of the IRC and the related regulations, a lessor of qualifying property may elect to treat the lessee as the owner of such property for the purposes of claiming the ITCs associated with such property. These regulations enable the ITCs to be separated from the ownership of the property and allow the transfer of the ITCs. Under the lease pass-through fund arrangements, we can make a tax election to pass-through the ITCs to the investor, who is the legal lessee of the property. We are therefore able to monetize these ITCs to investors who can utilize them in return for cash payments. We consider the monetization of ITCs to constitute one of the key elements of realizing the value associated with solar energy systems. We therefore view the proceeds from the monetization of ITCs to be a component of revenue generated from solar energy systems.

For the lease pass-through fund arrangements, we allocate a portion of the aggregate payments received from the investors to the estimated fair value of the assigned ITCs and the balance to the future customer lease payments that are also assigned to the investors. The estimated fair value of the ITCs is determined by discounting the estimated cash flows impacts of the ITCs using an appropriate discount rate that reflects a market interest rate.

 

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We recognize the revenue associated with the monetization of ITCs in accordance with ASC 605-10-S99. The revenue associated with the monetization of the ITCs is recognized when (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, (3) the sales price is fixed or determinable and (4) collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. The ITCs are subject to recapture under the IRC if the underlying solar energy system either ceases to be a qualifying property or undergoes a change in ownership within five years of its placed in service date. The recapture amount decreases on the anniversary of the placed in service date. As we have an obligation to ensure the solar energy system is in service and operational for a term of five years to avoid any recapture of the ITCs, we recognize revenue as the recapture provisions lapse assuming the other aforementioned revenue recognition criteria have been met. The monetized ITCs are initially recorded as deferred revenue on our consolidated balance sheets, and subsequently, one-fifth of the monetized ITCs is recognized as revenue from operating leases and solar energy systems incentives in our consolidated statements of operations on each anniversary of the solar energy system’s placed in service date over the next five years.

We guarantee our financing fund investors that in the event of a subsequent recapture of ITCs by the taxing authority due to our noncompliance with the applicable ITC guidelines, we would compensate them for any recaptured ITCs. We have concluded that the likelihood of a recapture event is remote and, consequently, have not recorded any liability in our consolidated balance sheets for any potential recapture exposure.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for stock-based compensation costs under the provisions of ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense related to the fair value of stock-based compensation awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Stock-based compensation expense recognized includes the compensation cost for all stock-based payments granted to employees based on the grant date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718. ASC 718 is also applied to awards modified, repurchased or cancelled during the periods reported.

We apply ASC 718 and ASC Subtopic 505-50, Equity-Based Payments to Non Employees, to options and other stock-based awards issued to non-employees. In accordance with ASC 718 and ASC Subtopic 505-50, we use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to measure the fair value of the options at the measurement date. The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustments as the awards vest and the resulting change in fair value is recognized in our consolidated statements of operations in the period the related services are rendered.

Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment. We use the Black-Scholes option valuation model, except for awards with market conditions for which we use a Monte Carlo simulation, to determine the fair value of stock options. The determination of the grant date fair value of stock options using an option valuation model is affected by our estimated common stock fair value as well as assumptions regarding a number of other complex and subjective variables. These variables include our expected stock price volatility over the expected term, stock option exercise and cancellation behaviors, risk-free interest rates and expected dividends, which are estimated as follows:

 

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Fair value of our common stock. Because our common stock was not publicly traded when we issued stock options prior to our initial public offering, we estimated our common stock’s fair value as discussed below. Subsequent to our initial public offering, we determined the fair value of our common stock based on its trading price on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

 

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Expected term. The expected term represents the period that our stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding and was primarily determined using the simplified method in accordance with guidance provided by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. The simplified method calculates the expected term as the average of the time-to-vesting and the contractual life of the awards. We will continue to utilize the simplified method until we have established a reasonable period of representative trading history as a public company, at which time we will determine the expected term based on the historical option exercise behavior of our employees, expectations about future option exercise behavior and post-vesting cancellations.

 

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Volatility. Because we do not have a significant trading history for our common stock, the expected stock price volatility for our common stock has been estimated based on the average historical volatilities of us and our industry peers using daily price observations over a period equivalent to the expected term of the stock option grants. Industry peers consist of several public companies in the solar energy industry similar in size and financial leverage. We did not rely on implied volatilities of traded options in our industry peers’ common stock because the volume of activity was relatively low. We intend to continue to consistently apply this process using the same or similar public companies until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the volatility of our own common stock share price becomes available, or unless circumstances change such that the identified companies are no longer similar to us. If this occurs, more suitable companies whose share prices are publicly available would be utilized in the calculation. Higher volatility and longer expected lives would result in an increase to stock-based compensation expense determined on the grant date.  

 

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Risk-free rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the yields of U.S. Treasury securities with maturities similar to the expected term of the options for each option group.

 

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Dividend yield. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends and do not presently plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, we used an expected dividend yield of zero.

In addition to assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option valuation model, we must also estimate a forfeiture rate to calculate the stock-based compensation for our awards. Our forfeiture rate is based on an analysis of our actual forfeitures, and forecasted forfeitures for awards with performance conditions. We routinely evaluate the appropriateness of the forfeiture rate based on actual and forecasted forfeiture experience, analysis of employee turnover and expectations of future option exercise behavior. Any changes in the estimated forfeiture rate can have a significant impact on our stock-based compensation expense as the cumulative effect of adjusting the forfeiture rate is recognized in the period the forfeiture estimate is changed. If a revised forfeiture rate is higher than the previously estimated forfeiture rate, an adjustment is made that would result in a decrease to the stock-based compensation expense recognized in our consolidated financial statements. If a revised forfeiture rate is lower than the previously estimated forfeiture rate, an adjustment is made that would result in an increase to the stock-based compensation expense recognized in our consolidated financial statements.

We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the expected term, expected volatility and forfeiture rate related to our stock-based compensation on a prospective basis, as well as the likelihood of achieving performance-based vesting criteria. As we continue to accumulate additional data related to our common stock and operations, we may have refinements to the estimates of our expected volatility, expected terms, forfeiture rates and likelihood of achieving performance-based vesting criteria, which could materially impact our future stock-based compensation expense as it relates to the future grants of our stock-based awards.

Short-Term Investments

Our short-term investments are comprised of corporate debt securities and asset-backed securities. We classify short-term investments as available-for-sale and carry them at fair value, with any unrealized gains or losses recognized as other comprehensive income or loss in our consolidated balance sheet. The specific identification method is used to determine the cost of any securities disposed of, with any realized gains or losses recognized as other income or expense in our consolidated statement of operations. Short-term investments are anticipated to be used for current operations and are, therefore, classified as current assets even though their maturities may extend beyond one year. We periodically review short-term investments for impairment. In the event a decline in value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment loss is recognized. When determining if a decline in value is other-than-temporary, we take into consideration the current market conditions and the duration and severity of and the reason for the decline, as well as the likelihood that we would need to sell the security prior to a recovery of par value.

Inventories

Inventories include raw materials that include silicon wafers, process gasses, chemicals and other consumables used in solar cell production, solar cells, photovoltaic panels, inverters, mounting hardware and miscellaneous electrical components. Inventories also include work in process that includes raw materials partially installed and direct and indirect capitalized installation costs. Raw materials and work in process are stated at the lower of cost or market (on a first-in-first-out basis). Work in process primarily relates to solar energy systems that will be sold to customers, which are under construction and have yet to pass inspection.

We also evaluate our inventory reserves on a quarterly basis and write down the value of inventories for estimated excess and obsolete inventories based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions.

 

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Business Combinations

We account for business acquisitions under ASC 805, Business Combinations. The cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets given, equity instruments issued, contingent consideration issuable and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date. Costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets, including intangible assets, acquired and liabilities, including contingent liabilities, assumed in the acquisition are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. Any noncontrolling interests in the acquired business are also initially measured at fair value. We recognize goodwill if the aggregate fair value of the total purchase consideration and the noncontrolling interests is in excess of the aggregate fair value of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed.

Long-Lived Assets

Our long-lived assets include property, plant and equipment, solar energy systems, leased and to be leased, and intangible assets acquired through business combinations. Intangible assets with definite useful lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives, which range from one to 30 years.

Furthermore, we are deemed to be the owner, for accounting purposes, during the construction phase of certain long-lived assets under build-to-suit lease arrangements because of our involvement with the construction, our exposure to any potential cost overruns and our other commitments under the arrangements. In these cases, we recognize a build-to-suit lease asset under construction and a corresponding build-to-suit lease liability on our consolidated balance sheets.

In accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment, we evaluate long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a long-lived asset, or group of assets, as appropriate, may not be recoverable. If the aggregate undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposition of a long-lived asset is less than its carrying value, then we would recognize an impairment loss based on the discounted future net cash flows.

Goodwill

Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the aggregate fair value of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed in a business combination. We assess goodwill for impairment annually, in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of goodwill may exceed its fair value, at the consolidated-level, which is the sole reporting unit. When assessing goodwill for impairment, we consider our market capitalization adjusted for a control premium and, if necessary, our discounted cash flow model, which involves significant assumptions and estimates, including our future financial performance, weighted-average cost of capital and interpretation of currently enacted tax laws. Circumstances that could indicate impairment and require us to perform an impairment test include a significant decline in our financial results, a significant decline in our market capitalization relative to our net book value, an unanticipated change in competition or our market share and a significant change in our strategic plans.

Provision for Income Taxes

We use the asset and liability method in accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based upon the difference between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the differences are expected to be reversed.

The calculation of our tax assets and liabilities involves uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on the two-step process prescribed by applicable accounting principles. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon tax authority examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step requires us to estimate the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more likely than not of being realized upon ultimate settlement. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to determine the probability of various possible outcomes. We re-evaluate these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit and new audit activity. Such a change in recognition or measurement could result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision in the relevant period.

As of December 31, 2015, we had $10.1 million of uncertain tax positions. As of December 31, 2014, we had $0.5 million of uncertain tax positions that were acquired related to the purchase of Silevo and Zep Solar.

 

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As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, we had net deferred tax assets of $367.8 million and $111.2 million, respectively. During these periods, we maintained valuation allowances against these net deferred tax assets.

Our deferred tax assets prior to 2015, primarily relate to net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards, accelerated gains for tax purposes, stock options,  and deferred revenue. In 2015, our deferred tax assets primarily are related to deferred revenues, stock options, and the book versus tax basis differences in the joint venture funds. Our deferred tax asset valuation allowance is determined in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires an assessment of both negative and positive evidence when measuring the need for a valuation allowance. Based on the available objective evidence and our history of losses, we believe it is more likely than not that our net deferred tax assets will not be realized.

We make estimates and judgments about our future taxable income that are based on assumptions that are consistent with our plans and estimates. The amount of our valuation allowance could be materially affected should the actual amounts differ from our estimates. Any adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance would be recorded in our consolidated statements of operations in the period in which the adjustment is determined to be required.

In the current year, we utilized all available NOL carryforwards from prior years. The utilization of the remaining NOL carryforwards and credits may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to the ownership change limitations provided by the IRC Section 382 and similar state provisions. The annual limitation may result in the expiration of NOL carryforwards and credits before utilization. We completed an IRC Section 382 analysis through December 31, 2015. Based on the analysis, the NOL carryforwards presented have accounted for any limited and potential lost attributes due to any ownership changes and expiration dates. We also analyzed the NOL carryovers related to our acquisitions of Zep Solar and Silevo. Based on the analysis, there were no significant limitations to the utilization of either Zep Solar’s or Silevo’s NOL carryforwards. The NOL carryforwards presented are not expected to expire unutilized.

As part of our asset monetization strategy, we have agreements to sell solar energy systems to financing funds. The gain on the sale of the assets has been eliminated in our consolidated financial statements. These transactions are treated as inter-company sales, and as such, income taxes are not recognized on the sal